Japanese women restricts high efficiency of labour in the country.

Despite a significant reduction in the gender gap in wages in Japan in the last 25 years, women continue to lose due to the accepted model of personnel management and culture-based remuneration for overtime work, the study said Hara Hiromi Research Institute of economy, trade and industry (RIETI). Although from 1990 to 2016, the gender gap index was reduced from 40 to 27.8 points, the difference in pay levels between men and women in Japan remains one of the highest in the OECD (worse the situation is in South Korea and Estonia).

The decrease was mainly due to the smoothing inequality of human capital (e.g. education), says the researcher. At the same time in one of the most developed world economies in the world Japanese women continue to face “glass ceilings” and “sticky floors”: the career for them is very limited, and their employment in low-prestige and low-paying jobs disproportionately.