World experience of population control
Men’s decree, the penalties for children and social benefits to help the governments of different countries to control fertility.
The overpopulation of the planet and the subsequent fight for survival — one of the main fears of civilization over the past centuries. Writers antiutopii not just in dark colours, described a world in which there is no birth control.
The problem is global and, most importantly, urgent. Society is obsessed with the solution of the problem in the mid 1900’s by launching a program of reproductive health and family planning: from the promotion of barrier methods of contraception to the regulation of abortion and the management of migration. The measures predictably resulted in fierce disputes demographic, most of which rested on basic human rights.
The birth control performs the opposite, important for many countries the function contribute to population growth. For example, one such campaign launches the government of Thailand. This year, starting with Valentine’s Day that is February 14, a married lady aged from 21 to 34 years old can get free complexes of nutritional supplements that promote reproductive health of women.
The experience of countries conducting an active demographic policy, in the article “Izvestia”.
Our country ranked ninth in terms of population, but the government expects to improve the performance and increase the number of citizens, given the size of the territory. Transitional in this issue began in 2013, when was witnessed the first since 1991, the natural population growth. Positive changes were noted in 43 subjects of the Russian Federation, and the number of citizens increased by 22 thousand people.
One of the leading tools to stimulate the birth rate in Russia is maternity capital. During the existence of the program allowance received 7.8 million families, and the payout has almost doubled, from 250 thousand to 453 thousand. the Important role played by two factors: the country has decreased mortality and increased life expectancy. For example, in 1995, the citizen of Russia lived to 65 years, and now the threshold has increased to 71-72 years.
However, of the 146 million people in Russia, about 68% live in the European part. To attract the population to the East was developed a program “far Eastern hectare,” under which any resident can obtain a free plot of land.
Champions by demographic stimulation of the population are the Scandinavian countries. The fertility rate (the ratio of the number of children born among women) in Norway is approximately 1.8. One more indicator they manage to keep is not the first year. The role of migrants in the process is small, because the birth rate in most rich visiting the regions close to the average in the country.
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Active demographic policy carried out in Norway since 2000. Mother went to work before the baby is born, for the next 42 weeks began to receive full compensation. Alternatively, they offer 80% of the salary, but throughout the year.
In Norway, also provides for maternity leave for men. So fathers can spend more time with spouses and children.
Few know, but such program exists in Russia. The head of the family just as likely to receive benefits, but there are strict limits: Handbook of father is 40% of earnings, but the total amount may not exceed 17 990 rubles.
Serious problems with overcrowding experienced by countries, the number of which is close to or over a billion people.
China has a population of over 1.3 billion people — according to various sources, 138-144 people per 1 sq. km.
The issue of birth control in China is very serious. In 1979, the Chinese government launched the program under the telling title “One family — one child”, which implies a penalty of four to eight average annual income in the region of birth for second and subsequent children.
The campaign as a whole came to fruition, and by 2000 the number was reduced to 1.2 billion people. But solving one problem has led to the emergence of another: over time, began to increase the gender imbalance, and men in the country is nearly 20 million more than women.
In 2016, the government went towards the citizens and allowed couples to have two children without penalty. As noted by the Director of the National Commission on health and family planning of China Wang, Paani, at least 20-30 years before the moment the program decides to cover.
It should be noted that in this policy there is one flaw, the birth control can lead to an overall aging of the population, but, according to Payana, the main task of China is not to increase the workforce, and improving its quality.
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One of the most rigid methods of birth control have been implemented in India. In 1976, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi endorsed mass sterilization of women and abortion for mothers with two or three children. Those who refused to undergo the procedure in exchange for a monetary reward, a force was sent to surgery. The reward system also worked in favour of the informants who informed the authorities about large families. The result for the year was sterilised about 8 million men and women.
Despite the harshness of the method, India again went back to him. First, in the 1980s, when voluntary sterilization agreed about 5 million people, and then in 2011-2012, when operations were subjected to about 4.6 million women. In return, they offered a one-time payment of 1.4 thousand rupees — a sum exceeding in some particularly poor regions of a two week earnings.
The procedure was often carried out in poor conditions, and, as a consequence, more than 1.4 thousand medical interventions has led to tragedies. And only in 2016 the decision of the court, adopted a resolution on the closure of all camps sterilization for three consecutive years.
An interesting example of population control show US. The authorities managed to increase the birth rate without direct intervention in the Affairs of the family.
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In 2011, the birth rate reached record-low numbers for 90 years: on light has appeared the order of 3.95 million children, 63 children per 1,000 women. As the reasons cited as the economic crisis and the fact that immigrants began to bear fewer children. For the six subsequent years the total number increased from 311 million to 325 million people.
In the United States created very favorable conditions for attracting immigration flow, not to mention the social support of particularly needy citizens. Social and economic policy has led to the fact that life expectancy in the country increased to 78.4 years, which is seven years higher than the average value in the world.
It is also important to the system of benefits provided by organizations. Many large companies have programs for family support, future fathers and mothers, provide paid leave for family reasons, allow adapt work schedules and pay preschool.