For women in Russia are closed 456 professions. A truck driver, an assistant captain and the captain — about how they overcame this ban

For women in Russia are closed 456 professions. A truck driver, an assistant captain and the captain — about how they overcame this ban

In Russia there is an official list of 456 occupations prohibited for women; it was adopted in 1974. The UN recognized the list discriminates against women, Ministry of labor promised to revise it.

But for now, women are not supposed to work as a carpenter or a diver, to control the train, to be a member of deck and engine team on the ship, and also to drive a car with carrying capacity more than 2.5 tons. It is believed that these professions are too difficult and traumatic for women and can harm reproductive health.

However, some women manage to make their take on this work, but they would have to apply to trade unions, human rights defenders or even UN — as, for example, made the second mate Svetlana Medvedev from the city of Samara.

“Medusa” talked to women who also do not think it necessary to divide the profession into “female” and “male” and drive trucks and vessels.

Evgeny Kornev

23, of St. Petersburg; 4th mate of the liquefied gas carrier, seniority 4 months.

I graduated from the navigation faculty of the State University of sea and river fleet named Makarova on a speciality the engineer-the Navigator can work in positions from the fourth to the second mate.

Now I’m fourth on the liquefied gas carrier Sibur Tobol. When I arrived, the captain said to teach anything, we are not going to do favors too. If got means, can work. I liked it a lot: it means that I believe in of a specialist. But even in the Navy indulgences anyone do — even if you’re not a sailor, and student.

I came to the University on a budgetary basis, the competition was small, and in the first year we had 200 people. Prior to the release of five years later came 70, and the girls were only three.

It was easy for me because I like discipline and form since childhood, from the age of 14 went to Murmansk competition “Lightning” — there was learning to overcome the obstacle and to help people in extreme situations. Dreamed of becoming a lifeguard in the MOE, even applied to the Academy, but gleaning the right score in mathematics. Now I think that it’s good, because otherwise I would not have hit the Makarovka and saw that the navigation Department there is a budget place.

Remember holding a sheet with professions and don’t want to read further: here it is, this specialty want to be a sailor!

Scores on the exam was enough for my parents, optimists, I upheld throughout (“to be a Captain want? That’s good!”), I did. School started. Our boys-classmates for five years, never asked why I want to be a sailor, didn’t say “you’re a girl”, we were friends, no discrimination I felt. Session I passed not worse than they are, practice is also held together.

But the teachers of the old school, who themselves went into the sea, always reacted uniquely. For example, read a lecture on the structure of a vessel, and so casually — Oh, girls, well, where you are in the sea, you have to start a family.

In makarivka sailors receive two diplomas: one graduation, and the second — “the marine worker” diploma. The second is more important as shipping companies-employers pay more attention. In order to obtain it, you need to earn marine qualification: five years of cadet training, 12 months must hold a cadet in the sea — to serve in the deck crew and at the same time to learn from the navigators and the captain. My cadet working day, for example, constructed as follows: four hours I spent on the bridge, and another four hours was a sailor.

In Makarovka is a mandatory practice on the sailing ship “Mir” — the boys from different faculties on six months leave in different countries. The crew consists of 80 people, girls usually 12, future navigators, electricity and even the engineers — occupied one cabin. But in that year the entire thread was not 12 people, so us girls with “World” was not released.

Fortunately, I found another place: a cadet on a large passenger ferry “Princess Mary”. It is not as cool as “the World” and is considered the “home ship”, as it goes from St. Petersburg to Helsinki and back. I for five months became a working force that does everything you ask (laughs).

He commanded on the deck of the boatswain, paint, tscreate here to, here to clean up the garbage. Along the way, learned the ship — it was easy: when you say: “Wipe plancher!” want-not want, and figure out what it is. Third mate taught me to identify the location of the ship, to correct the maps, keep watch. Always remember that you, the future driver, so must be intelligent, discreet, to be a leader is important for the sailors, for example, was getting familiar.

Was ashore I with pride, the whole crew accompanied me, and the commander even gave me a shirt on her collar in gold letters were embossed “Princess Mary”. Such is the whole navigational structure. The highest degree of recognition! Then the commander and the first officer even came to my graduation, we laugh together, remembering their first impression of me: when I went to the bridge, both made big eyes, and the commander said, “You drink coffee and ogle third assistant will scrub the deck!”.

It is no secret that the captains educate cadets for themselves so they are comfortable to work together. After the fifth course, I was called to work on “the Princess Mary”, but it did not: the company owner sold the boat.

Began to send out resumes and go on interviews — it was important to get a job quickly. The sailors are very strict: it is necessary to take a break in seniority, and then people will look with distrust — why six months was not working, sitting at home? Many wanted me to take, but not with a degree, and a cadet. I refused — played ambitions: my classmates worked with navigators, and again I begin all over again

I remember walking along the Nevsky and almost cried, thinking all is lost. And then I got a call from “Sovcomflot”. I was determined to Sibur Tobol is a ship with a displacement of 765 tons 22, which runs between Ust-Meadow near St. Petersburg, Sweden, France and England.

I was there the first girl is a Navigator, having received a contract for four months.

That’s a lot — it is believed that during this time in the sea chart part time to get tired. Therefore, a standard chart — four in four, equally at sea and on shore.

It was hard for me psychologically: it is one thing to walk a cadet, to learn, quite another Navigator. You’re already part of the bridge team (team composition — approx. “Medusa”), you have a responsibility. For example, when we go to the port, the third mate is moored at the LHC, the second at the stern, and I remain on the bridge with the pilot and captain, I record everything in the logbook, give the team captain to the helmsman.

Somehow there was the Kiel canal in Germany, docked and come aboard rose port staff. I introduced myself on the Charter, said: “I’m a 4th officer”. Aliens was a little surprised, but began to report to me on the mooring plan, to tell how they will approach the tugs. Five minutes later I understood the reason for the surprise — they gently asked how I’m so young, and already senior assistant? Just the first and fourth words in English sound similar, and the post of the fourth assistant in some foreign companies simply do not have.

I heard about the list of professions prohibited for women, and do not understand what guided the authors of the registry. Yes, working at sea is not easy, but it is not easy for everyone. And if people, regardless of gender, adequate — why wouldn’t he be a boatswain, Navigator, sailor? When we went to Europe, I via radio VHF constantly heard women’s voices: the captains of the other ships, the senior assistants cadets. I think it’s normal.

Now I have ended the contract, I’m home in St Petersburg for four months. Went from the ship with sadness, was a feeling of some incompleteness. Going on these “vacation” to go to the fitness center — will expand the horizons for cargo operations. I’m 23, and I just spread your wings, was a small stage, but nothing proven.

Anna Obukhova

37 years old, Naberezhnye Chelny; the driver of the truck, work experience of 4 years.

I’ve always wanted to drive a truck, but I had two higher educations, engineering and economic, because “otherwise it is impossible, we have in the family eight generations of teachers and doctors”.

Got the right category, then C and D, worked in Ufa, the driver of a trolley bus. On the bus with no experience just did not take, but the trolley is much more complex, extreme situations there is not less, plus you’re tied to a power source. Then drove the bus from one end of town to the other. It was scary, because it’s on a wagon you’re single and on the bus with you people, and you are responsible for them.

Now, when someone from fellow truckers talks about the complexity of the work, always ask: “do you bus to work?”

In dalnoboishiki I also do not just take it. In our country young man at the age of 21 can come into a big company and easy to get to work. A girl with no experience will not take generally, and to gain the experience you need to drive and the wheel is not allowed without the experience. A snake swallowing its own tail.

I was lucky and I got to a private owner, uncle Vanya, he had two trucks and two-axle truck, they are called “loner” (the truck with the body, its capacity is 10-12 tons. — approx. “Medusa”). Here “alone” I became a experience to turn out — to wait, when you can sit behind the wheel of the truck.

The case was presented in a month — one of the drivers got sick, needed someone to replace, on a flight from Barnaul to Ivanteevka. For five days I rode for 3500 miles, take 20 bays with wire, each weighing a ton. And I finally got a truck!

To say that during this flight I have hands and feet sweated, to say nothing. I felt that there’s just me and what I need to deliver the goods. When reached, the clock was 16:24 — yeah, I even now, four years later, I remember that flight in seconds. Because the truck was my dream, and everything else: bus, trolleybus, truck — only steps to it.

After the illness of the chief, his family decided to sell the car, I was left without a job. Got a job in a transport company “700 road” — I was interviewed, I was tested for knowledge of materiel reached the level of Parking. I was the only woman among nearly a hundred drivers, men carrying loads weighing more than ten tons on the roads of the country. Colleagues, too, I “tested”: this is the male drivers are default with respect, and women need to prove their qualifications — demonstrate that you know the car can fix itself.

My friends and I once made a list of seven questions that are sure to sound in the communication channel for truckers, when men learn that driving a girl.

What is the name of where to go, what if you have a wheel burst? I hate the question about the wheel! Well, what a normal driver would do if his wheel later? To change, of course. Here I am changing. Of course, don’t like to do — my weight is 60 kilograms, the minimum weight of wagon wheel — 87. But practice shows that it is better not to wait for help, so just go and do it, not asking anyone.

By the way, once colleagues have learned that I changed the wheel began to be treated with respect. But in conversations on the radio still talking in a low voice, to avoid the obsessive attention and banter from colleagues. Guys I sometimes answer: “Thank you, brother!” and it honestly suits me more than questions about whether I’m married or not.

Job truck driver heavy and equally for men and women. Drivers of any gender pay a small bet and pay extra for mileage. Know how much kilometer that you drive with the cargo? From 2.5 to 5 rubles. Such work is very small.

According to the mode of work and rest, which involves protecting the health of the driver and protection from emergency situations on the road, it should not pass more than 630 km per day on the roads of Siberia, for example. Passed — up to relax. But if the driver will go exactly according to standards, it is, first, by the end of the month will earn a penny, and secondly- none of the shipping company won’t let him so long to carry the goods.

Now I gaishnik fined for failure to comply with the regime for 3000 rubles.

They say to him: the commander, you stopped me, but my fault how? We have penalties for non-delivery of cargo on time.

Still had to pay. And in Europe, the violation of the regime of work and rest of the driver would be paying the employer, and the penalty would have amounted to more than EUR 1000, — for the creation of the driver environment in which he is forced, as we say, “ride standing up”, that is, almost without rest and sleep. I drove a maximum of 23 000 km per month — she paid the fines, repairing the car, if needed.

I’m married, husband is also a trucker, but now for health reasons does not go in flight. And I for four years on their beauty and swallow (it’s a 17-ton tractor-trailer and reefer plant, which can hold up to 22 tons of cargo — approx. “Medusa”) has traveled all over the country. Was everywhere except in the far North, and Vladivostok. More often meet on the roads of other women drivers. So, the situation is changing. A few years ago, the company I worked for almost a hundred drivers, I was the only girl, soon they are, I think, will be more.

That’s good, because if women learn to drive, they do it better than men. They respond quickly and more accurate, they have adrenaline, they don’t make any sudden movements on the road. Over 19 years of driving I’ve seen a lot of drivers with some kilometer go, my hair might turn white from fear: they don’t feel the road, just press on the pedal. As for driving the right talent — this is how someone sings, someone plays guitar, someone awesome cook.

Those who started to drive in the Soviet era, to make women driving difficult.

But they have to steer a decade — a generation of male peers is another. They understand that talent, gender is not important.

The only category that I did not open — a category A. can’t drive a motorcycle. Son and daughter ride bikes, and dream to teach me. Say: mom, you drive a truck, really great is not the master? I say that only a truck can, because this is a dream.

Tatiana Sukhanova

46 years old, Vladivostok, the captain of the container ship, length of service 28 years.

In the late 1980s I graduated from the Blagoveshchensk river College, got a degree in “master mechanic” and immediately went to work, walked along the Amur river on small steamers, where I was a mechanic and a sailor, that is, the combined deck and engine work, and later became the third assistant to the captain in the Amur river shipping company, then the plant of the Lenin Komsomol.

I tried to enter the FEHEMC (now the Maritime state University. Nevel) in Vladivostok, but I immediately said, I will not do, because the girl. Waited, when it became possible to pay for studies, and studied in absentia. It seems, in four years not a single thing have bought it, but I had a job — the first flight was around the world: sit in Poland and passed all the oceans — past America, Africa, Brazil.

Worked in the “Vostoktransflot”, “Gallivare” has grown to the captain. Was the first mate in the British company was interested in working with foreign cryingly. I felt how different and working conditions, and relationships: I got the first mate of the ship more modest, something on which I went with the captain and the salary was above half.

And was not envy — we men at sea jealous profession to women, as women are jealous of men. They are easy to understand: now in Kamchatka there are almost no fleet collapsed “dalmoreprodukt”, “Vostoktransflot”, in far Eastern shipping company of nearly a hundred ships left 17. People are fighting for places.

I tried to get in cryingi Vladivostok “, Megamari” and “Corsair marine”, and I openly said: we women do not take.

I was outraged — if the foreign companies who represent these cryingi, he learned that the captain did not take the job just because she is a woman, they would have lost licenses.

I wrote to the Russian seafarers ‘ Union, called me back from St. Petersburg, convinced that watching so that there was no discrimination. But Petersburg is far away, and here girls I managers said the companies have jobs for men only.

Yes, women in the Navy diskriminiert — but the problem is not only the infringement of the rights of women, but also that Russia is now for sailors almost no work. Although 25 years ago was. When you start to laugh at the workers, the sailors say we are the same. Now I can go on the container ship “under the flag” are the captain of a Cyprus company, I drive flights to Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

I not only go to the sea, but also taught at the Vladivostok marine College of the future skippers and the engineers: the theory of ship construction, navigation, nautical astronomy. And then, to see these guys and girls work as managers in the salons of cellular communication. Current students often still, what to be. They have no motivation.

Recently I was speaking to the girls students who are the future navigators and mechanics. Of the 20 people, only five eyes — they know why they came. The rest: well, a friend went and I with him, my parents forced me, I need somewhere to learn. But for the sailor’s motivation is one of the key factors.

Remember, dal’rybvtuz scored course, consisting entirely of girls, went there my friend Oksana Spivak. She is now working in Vladivostok, removable captain — swartout in tow large ships. It’s a hell of a job and a huge responsibility, and Oksana for a day of work is 4000 rubles. But she’s in love with the sea — so stand up. Of course, a lot gives family: Oksana’s husband is a sailor, I have too. We say: “the Best husband captain is a mechanic” (laughs). Lucky for me, we go together in flight.

I dream that someday we will be like in Holland. They are in the sea too I work. There is a steamer on the river, it is the arena in which children play and learn seamanship. Wish it was in Russian companies — a lot of good work in the Navy, which would be enough for both men and women. People would not go into foreign cryingi. That would be patriotism.