Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev: will go to the moon and people and robots
This spring began an open set in the cosmonaut, to fly to the ISS and the moon.
Selected applicants will become the first pilot of the ship “Federation” and the first in Russia to travel to the Earth, and in addition will work on a new program of the International space station.
About the future of our space industry “AIF” on the eve of cosmonautics Day said Sergei Krikalev, a cosmonaut, hero of the Soviet Union and Hero of Russia, Executive Director of the state Corporation “Roscosmos” manned space programs.
Who will take on the orbit
Vladimir Kozhemyakin, “AIF”: Sergei Konstantinovich, participate in the recruitment of anyone under the age of 35 years with higher education in engineering, scientific, or flight specialties and experience. Is the cosmonaut a shortage of personnel?
Sergei Krikalev: These sets are held as necessary, but not so — again, and decided let’s get. Most recently, in 2014, the cosmonaut detachment consisted of 41 people, and now about 30-some have gone to the members or engaged in other activities, someone cheated, someone already age, and medicine is not allowing it to fly further.
Initially the squad was selected only air force pilots, engineers of RKK “Energy” and, less often, specialists in space medicine. But in 2012 the list was expanded. This year will be used the experience of the first open enrollment 2012 — applications then it really could apply to anyone, and this method is justified. The current set will last until the end of the year, and the results will be announced in December.
It is planned to select 6-8 candidates and it is not excluded that it will be people of different professions. In 2012, for example, one of the candidates for profession as an artist, almost reached the finals, he was very interested in aerospace, had a good memory and demonstrated and had good health. But practice has shown that it is better to select for the flight of people with higher technical and scientific education. Perhaps some things related to art, here too, but in fact, if a person really wanted to become an astronaut, it is unlikely that I would go to study, say, history painting, and Vice versa — the critic, versed in the history of painting, is unlikely to be suitable for testing new space technology.
Early astronauts were tested on large over — thought it trains the body. But it turned out that he destroyed more than trains. Today we prepare the astronauts not primarily to physical stress, and to work with increasingly sophisticated digital equipment.Sergei Krikalev
— It has changed there over the years the requirements to health of cosmonauts?
— Of course. In the beginning recruited only military pilots, but very soon in manned spaceflight came from and other people. Valentina Tereshkova, behind, for example, was the experience of skydiving. Once it became multi-seat ships, began to prepare and engineers who could provide assistance in testing new equipment. There was a time when the requirements for astronauts from medicine have become more strict — because doctors, armed with new research methods, began to notice something that was not seen before, and learned more about the real conditions of space flight. We learned more about the real conditions of flight.
— As work on the orbit affects the body?
— When the duration of the flight began to grow, it became clear that one thing to hold in space for a few days and quite another — weeks and months. The need for man to withstand such a marathon and continue to work properly under stressful conditions imposed on the selection of astronauts appropriate limits.
For example, the test in the isolation chamber before the first flights were carried out to understand how people react to the absolute silence of space. But suddenly it turned out that actually on a modern space ship quite noisy, and constantly.
I tried to escape and headphones, and earplugs, but people need to communicate with the mission control Center and all channels of communication is noise. Had to develop countermeasures to protect the hearing at least at night.
But in the first flights it was completely different. I remember the stories then the astronauts on that ship is literally cotton, unnatural silence that you were imagining a non-existent sounds, which does not happen on Earth. Even in the woods in winter is still somewhere creaking twig, prosuschit bird… But the rockets then stood in absolute silence.
Early astronauts were tested on large over — thought it trains the body. But it turned out that he destroyed more than trains. Today we prepare the astronauts not primarily to physical stress, and to work with increasingly sophisticated digital equipment. And if the first astronauts main qualities were his youth and stamina, since the 1970s, the main criterion became Mature professionalism.
In flight it is planned more close interaction between the machines and humans. Not so long ago, we contrasted the supposedly — man chelovekov and machine avtomatov. Now it is assumed that the machines, for example, will lead to the moon exploration, to raise the ship soil samples, etc. Sergey Krikalev
To capture an asteroid
— A year ago you said that the unmanned launch of the new ship “Federation” from the Vostochny cosmodrome will take place in 2021, and 2023 — manned. The terms remain in force?
— A lot will depend on how soon the spaceport unfold work on the creation of launch complexes and launch vehicles rocket into orbit and how successful will the construction of the ship. Training of astronauts will commence only after it is ready materiel. Crew training makes sense when shown not only the appearance of the spacecraft, but the features of its functions. Therefore, we will first prepare the trainers, and then the crew.
— Earlier it was said that the scheme overflights and landing on the moon implies some starts of rockets “Angara” of different modifications. Everything remained intact?
— From my point of view, it’s not too optimal technical solution. Any mnogometrovaya scheme reduces the reliability of the work. Is to develop a new version of the Angara rocket, which will orbit over one time more payload. In addition, the flight plan closer interaction between the machines and humans. Not so long ago, we contrasted the supposedly — man chelovekov and machine avtomatov. Now it is assumed that the machines, for example, will lead to the moon exploration, to raise the ship soil samples, etc.
— A device like a robot-astronaut “Fedor” mentioned Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin will use in the flights to the moon?
— “Fedor” still not a man, so if he gets sent into space, it will be an unmanned flight. I am pleased to see that the achievements of the space industry in recent years embodied in these technical solutions. And certainly robotic device will find a use already in the first tests of the “Federation”. What — time will tell.
While discussing what the lunar infrastructure needed: base on the surface of the moon on a highly elliptical lunar orbit or on low (about 100 km). Or is it better to create multiple databases for different purposes.Sergei Krikalev
Robot “Fedor” or “Peter”, I do not know. Remember that when testing aircraft, catapult and landing capsules there always put the dummy in order to evaluate the distribution of loads. Just before it was a doll stuffed with sensors, and now a much more serious device in the form of a robot, and by the way, not necessarily humanoid.
Astronauts joke that, in principle, man in flight, his feet not need — he is there floating in weightlessness, not walking. And really, why would a robot need legs on the ship or the space station? Everything should be functional. It is possible that instead of legs it will have, say, a pair of hands, that is, four grasping limbs like a monkey. But now to say, let’s say, 7 years later, here this piece of iron is put here in this specific space ship, probably still premature. Most likely, the “thing” will be another, and the ship itself might be, too.
Roskosmos and NASA were negotiating to establish a joint base on the moon’s orbit. Did you agree on?
— Still being discussed what the lunar infrastructure needed: base on the surface of the moon on a highly elliptical lunar orbit or on low (about 100 km). Or is it better to create multiple databases for different purposes. Base on high orbit can be used for missions into deep space to asteroids and other planets, and low orbit is more suitable for landings on the moon.
Maybe start to explore space from the lunar surface will be easier than from Earth. And from lunar rocks, the settlers will be able to obtain water and energy. Perhaps it makes sense to use the base in a low orbit and as a slipway for the Assembly of new ships. And the Americans, for example, is the idea to capture a small asteroid and drag it into lunar orbit to study and use.
Middle priority is the Moon, then asteroids, satellites of Mars and the Mars. But the point is to move gradually, leaving in earth and lunar orbit staging database, including for a possible rescue astronauts in an emergency.Sergei Krikalev
Roskosmos, announced that the decision to extend the ISS until 2028 or completion of its work in 2024-m will be made in three years. May affect the prospects for such a solution to start development of the moon?
— Most likely, Yes, however, the need to stay of humanity in low earth orbit, of course, is not going anywhere. What it will be form — until the matter. The main limitation of the maintenance work of the ISS in the future is that the station will inevitably be to divert the resources that will be needed for the lunar project. But to extend her work, it is possible to, say, reformat the ISS for commercial applications.
By the way, there’s already interest, including, for example, pharmaceutical firms who want to spend on MKS a series of experiments — and not for budget money. If it succeeds, then the burden in the funding limit, ISS will not. But here the income is not an end in itself.
— What are the priorities of our astronauts today? Moon, Mars, ISS or a new Russian orbital station?
— Middle priority — Moon, then asteroids, satellites of Mars and the Mars. But the point is to move gradually, leaving in earth and lunar orbit staging database, including for a possible rescue astronauts in an emergency. Need to build a base camp, as do the climbers in the ascent. But in any case, wherever we’re targeting, we need to make the first move.
There is no doubt that over time, space will increasingly be used by machines — probes, robots and other systems, maybe even somewhat intelligent and able to perform quite complex tasks. But the caveat is that these tasks machines the man himself. And as soon as the task becomes more uncertain — for example, there is an emergency situation, something unprogrammed, require a creative approach and immediate intuitive reaction, or there is a need to test something new, the role of the person increases, and there are functions that are able to perform only an astronaut.
Therefore, people are left in a space pioneer, and will make decisions taking into account the development of technology.