100 years ago the white army recaptured from the red Perm
100 years ago the white guard troops repulsed the red army in Perm, which was a triumph for the young General Anatoly Pepelyaev, nicknamed the Siberian Suvorov.
New year’s success opened the Supreme ruler of Russia Alexander Kolchak the way to Moscow. Enraged by the loss of an important strategic point, the head of the Soviet government Vladimir Lenin was sent to deal with the reasons for the failure of Felix Dzerzhinsky and Joseph Stalin. Emissaries quickly conducted the investigation and found guilty.
100 years ago there was a remarkable episode of the Civil war. Part of the 27-year-old General Anatoly Pepelyaev took Perm, creating the opportunity for further advance of the white army to the West. This event procedure scared the Soviet leadership, which did not want to give the enemy the initiative on the Eastern front, and has taken a series of measures to stabilize the situation. In the years of the personality cult of Joseph Stalin was thought that “dear leader” saved the situation for the red army, and almost alone.
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The acquisition occurred through a fairly large-scale offensive in Perm operation carried out by the Siberian army of the whites.
The fighting unfolded at the front with a length of 400 km and had to Fight in terrible cold: the thermometer in the second half of December, 1918, dropped to minus 30 degrees. Against the Reds played the 1st middle Siberian army corps under the command of the young white General in Siberia Kolchak and brother of the Prime Minister of the Russian government Viktor Pepelyaev. On the river Chusovaya, he managed to break the 3-th Soviet army, Mikhail Lashevich.
At 6 am on 24 December, 4th Yenisei infantry regiment Perelevsky troops literally got up on skis (this mode of transportation is actively used in the conditions of a snowy winter) and the first burst to Perm. By evening, white cleared the red almost the entire city and the railway station. It is believed that lightning to take out a major base in the Urals allowed broke out in the city simultaneously with the assault uprising clandestine officer of the organization. Attacked inside and out, Soviet troops retreated in Kama.
The commander of the Soviet garrison in Perm reported to the headquarters of the 3rd army about the performance of officers in the following terms:
Today, about 5 a.m. was the uprising of the local population. Last worn organized. Simultaneously with the advance of the enemy on the Motovilikha armed gangs across the city raised the fire.
In the version of the Yenisei shooters transition of residents to the side of the whites looked like this:
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“Began to arrive Perm officers, students and townspeople who in the headquarters of the regiment received their arms and joined our companies. The volunteers arrived in tens of great benefit they provide to us, indicating the location of red and the house occupied by them”.
The news of the success of Perm operations unspeakably pleased the Supreme ruler of Russia Alexander Kolchak, which has now opened the prospect of going to Moscow. Whites, as we know, had planned to capture the capital offensive from three sides. In 1919 Anton Denikin will go with the South, and Nikolay Yudenich from the North-West. Reinforcements from the East they did not wait, although then, in December, the future was drawn Kolchak at rainbow tone. He generously rewarded Pepelyaeva, having welcomed him with the order of St. George 3rd degree and soon making the commander in Lieutenant General. Since taking (for interpretation of the white — release) Perm was held in the 128-th anniversary of the storming of Izmail, Pepelyaev henceforth became known as the Siberian Suvorov.
The “extraction” of white, besides other trophies, were 20 thousand prisoners of war.
To carry out a mass execution of young General became, quite unexpectedly releasing all the houses: among the captured soldiers dominated the forcibly mobilized, not ideological Bolsheviks.
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Kolchak demanded from his subordinates to develop the situation. Pepelyaeva managed to move another 45 km to the West, taking control of the whites of the vast territory of the Perm province. However, the extreme cold still stopped his progress. This allowed red to regroup and counter-strike 5-th army to take the Ufa defended by a not very efficient part. This circumstance interfered with by the headquarters of Kolchak plan to further hike Pepelyaeva, Vyatka (nowadays Kirov). The Supreme commander gave the order to go on the defensive entrenched positions.
Soviet authorities dubbed the loss of territory in the Urals “Perm disaster”. “In connection with the situation on the left flank of the Eastern front” the revolutionary military Council was required in any case to prevent the capture of Izhevsk and Votkinsk factories, which would give white a strong material and technical resources.
Chairman of people’s Commissars Vladimir Lenin, wounds which, according to him, better than any drug healed reports about progress on the fronts, after news of the loss of Perm is literally seething with indignation.
Still, he warned of the dire consequences of the failure of 3rd army Lashevich. And so it happened. The chief of all the armed forces of the Russian Federation Ioakim Vatsetis in its report attributed the failure to “sloppiness” sending from Yaroslavl to the front of the brigade, 7th infantry division, which was to reinforce the 3rd army.
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“This team according to the report of the Yaroslavl military district Commissariat was finished back in early December, but in fact its degree of readiness was such that it is only the 26th proceeded to the landing, — was stated in the report of the commander-in-chief. — Regrouping on the Eastern front near Perm were allocated to five regiments. In addition, it should be noted that the suppression of the revolt at the Izhevsk and Votkinsk factories left flank was amplified for the whole 2nd army.”
Another reason for the failure Vatsetis called failure sending rifles Lion Krasin. Really excited red and randomly obtained from the prisoner information about undercover agents in the white staff of the 3rd army.