155 years ago, has opened Russia’s first kindergarten
In 1863, in Russia, opened the first kindergarten. Why loud chanting is injurious to health why the shelter was arranged the theatre of shadows and the experiments were carried out with the samovar “Газета.Ru” talks about kindergartens from different eras.
UpGrowing flowers of life
The name “kindergarten” appeared not once. In 1837, German educator Friedrich Fröbel opened the institution, which is called Kinderbewahranstalten — day shelter for minors. However, he almost immediately came up with a shorter alternative, Kindergarten — “kindergarten”.
Metaphor names were: kindergarten had become not just “a factory for grinding of pupils,” wrote a follower of Froebel Adelaida Simonovich, but rather “a garden for growing flowers of life.”
Children, according to Froebel, are God’s plants, flowers, and the main task of the teacher as a worker of the garden, to grow them with special affection.
The intention of the founder, kindergarten was intended to oppose “steeped in technicism world natural, natural, natural motion of the sprout from the bottom up”.
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Since that time the popularity of the “school for young children”, in which kids spend hours “knit stockings, memorizing catechism and spend time in the dead silence,” will Freely had to create a didactic complex as opposed to.
According to the “Froebel Gifts” the so-called “the gardener” — the governess is played with wool balls of all colors, balls, cubes, cylinders of wood. It was also the first historical-pedagogical definition of the kindergarten as a place that deals with education and the free development of children who learn earlier.
Some time later, the experience Froebel came to Russia: we have the first kindergarten was opened in 1863 in St. Petersburg, the wife of Professor Carl Lugaila. At that time it was a paid institution that could afford for their children only very wealthy parents. To accept children from three to eight years, which the teachers were prepared for school and whose abilities are developed.
However, in the enlightened society of Petersburg to the new trend reacted with disbelief: quite common at that time was the opinion that the kindergarten children limits. Thus, the Russian scientist Nikolai Pirogov in his book “Questions of life” wrote that he did not would like to spend your childhood in such a place as “excessive over-regulation of collective games and amusements makes children not free.”
Strongly criticized vrubelevskii gardens and doctors — in their opinion, kindergartens served as a hotbed of diseases that children instantly passed each other in the process of the games.
Cited other arguments: work with small parts during educational games allegedly caused harm children’s vision, and a loud singing voice.
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Also, kindergartens were accused of excessive attention to the mental development of students — the doctors ‘ verdict was that the children become nervous.
Despite the torrent of criticism from different sides, the idea of creating a children’s garden was inspired by another active woman in 1866, the 22-year-old Adelaida Simonovich, along with her husband opened another paid kindergarten, the stay which was limited to four hours a day. To pay for it could afford only wealthy families. Three years later the kindergarten was destined to close due to lack of funding, and extensive teaching experience of Simonovice subsequently embodied in the book “kindergarten”.