Wrath of the Earth: how supervolcanoes will destroy humanity
New data on the eruptions of supervolcanoes of the Earth show that they are able to cause on the planet volcanic winter, in length, eighty years old.
Supervolcanoes Of The Earth
New data on the eruptions of the Yellowstone SUPERVOLCANO (USA) show that they are able to cause on the planet volcanic winter, in length, eighty years old.
The scope will be such that the suburbs will turn into the tundra, and the snow will lie on the Russian plain most of the year.
Suffer from the new climate in America, although to a lesser degree. Why Russia and Canada, from the Yellowstone may be worse than the States, and whether the age-old hunger after such an eruption to destroy all the people on Earth?
Film and media half of the XX century were told that nuclear war will destroy all the explosions, radioactive rain and the nuclear winter. It is, according to the myth-making propaganda, was to come from the fires of cities burning nuclear strikes. Soot would rise up and hid the Sun — and, as a result, years of light frost at the equator and minus 50 in the middle lane of Russia.
Since then, hordes of radioactive mutant filled movie about a “nuclear Apocalypse”, and there is a computer game tightened. Ironically, in these same years, scientists around the world out of a nuclear weapons nothing like this can not do. But something else is quite capable, and it’s something — type supervolcanoes Yellowstone.
Why we should calm down and stop being afraid of the bomb
In order to understand what is really terrible volcanic winter, we should compare it with nuclear war. The third world is full spending a full Arsenal of warheads all over the world will emit 50-150 million tons of soot from burning cities. Soviet and American researchers “nuclear winter” back in the 1980s, with the climate simulation described it as a disaster.
They estimated that summer temperatures in the continental part of Russia will drop by 35 degrees (lower in winter), and in the US by 20 degrees.
And about ten years temperature in both countries will not return to normal, which will completely eliminate the ability to conduct normal agriculture. Yes, said the scientists, themselves nuclear strikes would have killed a smaller part of the population of the two superpowers but a nuclear winter surely would have finished off all the remaining years of famine.
These calculations have a couple of big problems. The average capacity of nuclear weapons today — from 1.2 megatons or less. The explosion of such force could not provide the penetration of soot and ash into the stratosphere, where it never rains. And all fall below (in the troposphere) is quickly washed away by rains (e.g., the infamous Hiroshima “black rain”). A nuclear winter without getting soot into the stratosphere impossible. Proponents of the “winter” began to assume that soot, absorbs sunlight, heats up and rise above, still reaching the stratosphere. But no experiments of this kind has not been undertaken, why is this assumption unsubstantiated.
Second, and more important, point is that the heavy duty explosions with emissions of the light-absorbing particles on Earth has been. The eruption of mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991 had a capacity of 70 megatons stronger than any bomb detonated by man. From this 10 billion tons of solid rock in the form of fine particles thrown up to a height of 35 kilometers.
One average volcano gave 60-70 times more air emissions (and higher altitude) than it can give nuclear war.
This is logical: nuclear explosions do at altitude, otherwise the relief will protect ground targets from the blast. The volcano is spending all his energy in the atmosphere and on the ground, causing dust and raises more.
In addition, volcanoes give a lot of sulfur dioxide (Pinatubo 20 million tons). SO2 immediately produces a powerful antipenkova aerosols, which are far more dangerous soot from nuclear fires. Black carbon does not heat up the Earth’s surface, but warms the atmosphere around you. Ultimately, this heat must periodically break “particulate blanket” of the planet, giving the surface to heat up.
Sulfur aerosols reflect the Sun’s energy into space — that is, the air is not heated even at altitude. Usually sulfur dioxide and its derivatives are not dangerous, they are quickly washed out of the troposphere by rain. Pinatubo and more powerful volcanic eruption of the terrible fact that salviahut SO2 into the stratosphere, where no rain, and where aerosols can descend only very slowly under its own weight.
It is easy to notice that in 1991, the Pinatubo has polluted the atmosphere ten times stronger than a nuclear war. And what, really, the temperature dropped to 20-35 degrees? Average global temperatures in the 1991-1993 period really declined — however, at 0.5 degrees. Stories about a nuclear winter on this background look very doubtful. And the authors of works about her not a word mentioned about how the 150 million tons of “nuclear” emissions will be able to do something that is not mastered and 10 billion tons of real volcanic emissions.
What can volcanoes and supervolcanoes
We need to understand: 70 megatons Pinatubo in 1991 is a fairly small eruption. Krakatau in 1883 gave 200 megatons and 25 cubic kilometers of emissions Tambora in 1815 — 800 megatons. After Tambora (billions of tons of ash and SO2) in June 1816 began a snowfall in new York state, and it is to the South of Sochi. In Quebec then for a few days fell to 30 centimeters of fresh snow. A moon for the sky often looked then bluish, and then green particles, thrown out by eruption, distort the normal colour of the heavenly bodies.
Our country has seriously suffered only one such eruption Peruvian volcano Huaynaputina in 1600. After contact with sulfuric aerosols into the atmosphere quickly spreads them across the planet. Therefore, summer frosts began in our country, a frequent guest. In 1601-1603 years of harvest in the country was why the Great hunger and Confusion.