As Tereshkova paved the way for women astronauts United States

As Tereshkova paved the way for women astronauts United States

About the first flight of Valentina Tereshkova and achievements of other women astronauts at TASS.

Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in orbit and the only one who committed a single flight in a space ship. The launch of “Vostok-6” Tereshkova on Board in 1963 was another great achievement of the Soviet Union in space exploration — the main competitor in the United States could launch their first astronauts Sally Reid only in 1983.

To date, the national manned space program far behind in terms of gender: 47 women astronauts United States managed to send into space, starting 20 years later. Last time in orbit on June 6 of this year, he flew a doctor and an engineer Augen the Serine-Chancellor.

In the Soviet Union after Tereshkova in space has been the only Svetlana Savitskaya. In Russia to orbit worked well, only two are women — Yelena Kondakova, and Elena Serova.

About the details and background of the flight of Valentina Tereshkova, the other achievements of female astronauts and the current situation with the role of women in the Russian space program at TASS.

Queens vs air force

As a rule, the idea to send a woman astronaut into orbit wrongly attributed to Sergei Korolev. Most probably, the main initiative came from the command of the air force (VVS) USSR. In his diaries, who was then a post of the Deputy commander of the air force Nikolai Kamanin makes it clear that the recruitment in the cosmonaut detachment of women and the idea of sending women into space is actively promoted by him. This activity kamanina confirms in his book “Rockets and people” is one of the closest associates of the Queen, the Soviet designer, Boris Chertok.

Last also notes that the king completely missed the point with a new set in the cosmonaut where and hit Tereshkova.

Sergei Pavlovich was dissatisfied with the fact of loss of control over the selection rather than the presence of women.

On the other hand, in addition to rumors, there is no documentary evidence that the chief designer was against it. On the contrary, he was actively involved in discussions on the options of sending women to orbit. There were a few: a single flight, group flight on two ships the “man and woman” and flying on the two ships “woman — woman”. During a heated debate stopped at second.

Behind the scenes, if you analyze the data Kamanin and Chertok, the situation was such: on the one hand, the Queen was sending the best of women could promote his idea of a space launch civilians along with military pilots (after the first flight Korolev, on the one hand, really believed that to control the space ship skills as a fighter pilot are not required, but on the other hand, he was irritated by the hegemony of force in the formation of the cosmonaut corps). But in case of failure, Korolev finally could lose control over the formation of the squadron in the air force at the end of the emergency flight would have guaranteed to prove that the orbit should fly only military pilots. On the last again, says Chertok, and indicates kamanina, who was simultaneously the chief apologist of flight women…

The causes and the course Platonovna the reason for launching women into space in the Soviet Union was at that time the ideological — had to crawl on the next turn of the space race rival, the USA.

Kamanin writes openly about this in his diaries: “we Cannot allow the first woman in space was American — it would offend the Patriotic feelings of Soviet women”. Study the physiology and psychology of women in space, women’s suit, other tests were secondary.

For the same ideological reasons, the choice fell on Tereshkova: she’s the only one among the candidates had higher education (graduated then only a College), but distinguished by ability to speak before an audience and was, as would say today, “people’s astronaut”. These qualities are then fully involved in social work, including abroad, amid the glory Tereshkova — first woman in space. In addition, writes in his book, “Korolev: facts and myths” journalist Yaroslav Golovanov, candidate Tereshkova had turned and the king himself.

Start the “Vostok-6” was held on 16 June 1963 at 11:59 GMT with the 1st pad of the Baikonur cosmodrome.

Tereshkova was in orbit for nearly three days, reentry capsule landed in the Altai Krai on 19 June 1963 at approximately 10:50 GMT. The first day nothing was extraordinary. On the second day, according to diaries of Kamanin, Tereshkova during communication sessions with the Earth was very tired, but tried not to show it. Chertok describes the situation more stress — contacted the ship on the Ground experts began to complain of vague answers Tereshkova.

Tereshkova also failed the first time to Orient the ship on the pitch during training on manual landing. Earlier media itself Tereshkova explained this episode of tangled cables in the cockpit that led to inversion (conditional: pull the stick back and the ship goes nose down).

However, according to the same kamanina, just before planting, after instructing Titov and Gagarin, she was able to guide the ship, was pleased with the results and the king himself. Chertok writes only that she was unable to Orient “Vostok-6” for the first time.

Landing Tereshkova was performed on the 49th round of the “East-6”. The descent was performed by automatic spacecraft, while there was one exciting situation — Tereshkova did not confirm the passage of commands to the automation starting the engines on the brake, the separation, etc.. this tells Chertok in his book, the same notes and Kamanin in his diaries. Landing astronaut was done as the rest of the ships “Vostok”, by ejection seat.