Not only bed: like sleeping in different countries
Chests and shelf is a traditional place to sleep in Russia. In Europe, the bed resembled the closet. Each country and each time, his habits. “My planet” tells about the most interesting.
Round, two-story, combined with the wardrobe and made in the form of a racing car — a modern bed changing fashion every day. And before that?
- The Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, Romans
- Earth, hay, stone ledge, “shop”, “lektus”
Bed people who lived in the stone age, was the land covered with the skins of animals. Only the Sumerians about 5000 years ago began to highlight in their homes special rooms for sleeping, and even to do bed on a raised platform. The higher the floor, the less likely the bite of poisonous reptiles, and warmer, although the actual niche, like a shelf in the second-class carriage was cold and hard stone, after all.
For the first time something like a modern bed appeared among the ancient Egyptians. It was a wooden deck chair on four legs (usually they were made in the form of paws of animals), which pulled the grid of straps and ropes. It is this gold-plated shop found in the composition of the funerary furniture of the mother of the Pharaoh Cheops Hetepheres I, and in the tomb of Tutankhamun (XIV century BC).
However, to them was still far away, because instead of the cushions used a headrest made of stone, wood or metal.
And such a luxury was available only to the elite. Ordinary people continued to sleep on sacks of hay or chairs of boards and stones.
In Ancient Rome began to make the bed with the back and the headboard, and legs. It was called “lektus”. Pillows and mattresses were stuffed with wool, themselves “lactose” halts transparent cloth for protection against insects (it is this veil was later reincarnated in the canopy).
Under the hood
- Bench, wooden canopy bed
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Mere mortals in the early middle Ages not far removed from the stone age and still sleep anywhere: on the floor or on a bench at wall carpets, covered the surface with mattresses stuffed with feathers, wool or hair, covered with fabric, skins. From insects saved the canopy. The fabric could be lightweight, and dense, depending on climate; canopy, among other things, sheltered from drafts — slept-in ancient times, naked.
To the XII century beds have become similar to what we know today. Although they appear primarily among the nobility. Wooden, richly decorated with carvings and paintings, and gems, they also were buried in pillows of different sizes and shapes. The head of the bed was elevated relative to IsNot. And then there are sofa beds with leather pillows, top of which is covered with silk. By day these beds were used as couches.
Working people sleeping on simple wooden benches made of boards, but the important fact bed out to the people.Russia bed
- Oven, shelf, bench, unsteady, mattress, feather bed, chest
Thanks to the tale of Emelya all know that in Russia, slept on the stove. It always was — a moot point. After all, the dawn of Slavic history in VIII—XIII centuries. furnace stoked smoke — the chimney was and all the smoke and soot poured directly into the house, leaving through doors and Windows. Was it possible to sleep in this hell fire — hard to say. But after the preheating is probably Yes. It is known that the Russian stove had a great sleep with the XV—XVI centuries, when it already had a chimney. In order to make it easier to climb, was done in stages. Sleeping on the stove not all — only the older, respected members of the family.
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However, the Slavs (roughly the second half of I thousand BC) was the alternative — loft, in other words, wooden benches, fastened under the ceiling next to the stove. Most often they are fastened to the two intersecting walls or between a wall and one of the walls of a Russian stove. They were at first low, half-meter away from the floor, then moved up here and warmer, and a place in the house saves. Children’s bunk did with the bumpers, so that kids will not fall down; the babies slept in sabkah wooden cradles, rope which hung from the ceiling and the tree. Adult loft was done without the sides and resembled a tall and wide shelf. The loft was an attribute not only of a peasant house, they can often be found in the boyar estates.
However, such adaptations have been relevant only in the cold season. In the summer, when the stove is used only for cooking, on the shelf of dried vegetables and herbs. People slept on benches or on the chests, who not only were great and replaced the cabinets, but was made with a flat lid. The use of the trunk as a lounger not only saves space in the house, but also protected the good stored in him from thieves.
As mattress used the mattress — it was made of burlap and stuffed with what will have, such as old rags. Rich people could afford a feather bed — a mattress stuffed with bird down and feathers. The Solomonic called a mattress stuffed with straw and barn — dried hay or moss. They were made of sturdy canvas so that the hay pricked sleeping. There were other types of mattress — for example, those that were stuffed horse hair, or even seaweed. One of the cheapest was Lykovo a mattress that was filled with processed willow bark or Linden. However, he had one major disadvantage: due to the fact that wood eventually dampen, he moulded case circuit breaker.
The bed appeared as such in Russian peasant homes only in the XIX century, but in the boyar mansion they learned back in the days of Peter, in the seventeenth century. That’s just the habit of sleeping under the ceiling of the Russian people were very tenacious, and therefore highborn dignitaries and wealthy merchants turned their bed into a layer cake with a heap of quilts, mattresses and blankets. In order to get to the top, even had to substitute a small ladder or chair.