610 years ago Temnik Yedigei lifted the siege of Moscow and took the Mongols in the Barn
610 years ago Temnik Yedigei lifted the siege of Moscow and received from the townspeople generous ransom, along with thousands of Russian prisoners left from the Kremlin walls to the Golden Horde, where there was an attempt of a Palace coup.
However, to restore the procedure of receiving tribute from the Muscovites Mongols failed. But because of the crisis in their own power to devastating raids Moscow, they no longer bothered.
20 Dec 1408 Edigu of the Golden Horde Temnik suddenly lifted the siege of Moscow and turned back in the desert, unspeakably happy preparing for the worst of urban residents. Then still none of the Muscovites did not know what more the Golden Horde will not threaten their Principality. Immersed myself in a terrible confusion, it splits into several warring shards.
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In 1382, just two years after the battle of Kulikovo — ruinous March on Moscow have been taken by Khan Tokhtamysh, who sought to restore dependence conquered by his ancestors, but began to raise mutinies of the Russian lands. Because of the effect of the suddenness of his campaign was a resounding success. Seeing the Golden Horde, the Muscovites panicked, and recently crashed so spectacularly Mamaia Prince Dmitry Donskoy hastily left the Kremlin officially — collection rati. Left with his flock and Metropolitan Cyprian.
As we know from the Chronicles, the Mongols failed to take the walls by storm and went on cheating. When the unsuspecting inhabitants themselves opened the gates, hordes broke into the city streets, began to plunder and kill. Almost the entire population perished or was stolen into slavery:
And I was in the city slashing evil and out to hail tacos slashing big. And until then seconds until arms and shoulders are not loose or exhausted they are.
Tokhtamysh got a great booty.
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Years passed, and himself the all-powerful Khan was defeated by the Central Asian conqueror Tamerlane, who defeated his troops in an epic battle on the Terek in 1395, in which both sides participated more than 1 million people, and the loss of hundreds of thousands. The Golden Horde never recovered from the crushing blow. To exist in the usual form, but rather agonizing she had some decades.
Tamerlan had intended to go to Moscow, but suddenly turned around and went back home. Not believing his luck suffered people blamed the incident on a miraculous property of the blessed virgin, brought from Vladimir, and since then revered as the patroness of Moscow.
After perpetrated the defeat of the Golden Horde, the Moscow authorities have once again demonstrated the intention to withdraw from the status of a tributary. A new Barn has not inspired them with such fear as before.
Hike Edigei was supposed to be another act of intimidation of recalcitrant vassal. It was necessary to weaken the developed communications of Moscow with Lithuania. The purpose of Edigei was also the recovery of other rebellious territories.
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“He was very swarthy, of medium height, stocky build, courageous, terrible in appearance, of high intelligence, generous, with a pleasant smile, the mark of insight and intelligence” — as described this Temnik, that is, the major commander, the commander of the tumens.
Chronicles the story of the invasion 1408 preserved in several versions. From a very early and short, it follows that Yedigei moved to the Russian land by order of Khan Bulat accompanied by four princes and many of the princes of the Horde. And in Moscow repeated the old story: those who put on the rank, and in charge did not know about moving with the most aggressive intentions of the enemy army.
The Grand Duke Vasily I was caught off guard. Like his father Dimitri, he hastily departed from the city, going to the fire.
“Vasilej’t have time nor less squads shpati,” — said on this occasion, in Simonovsky chronicle.
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The example of their ruler was followed by many wealthy and notable residents, who did not want to repeat the fate stabbed, burnt and drowned by Tokhtamysh. The flight of the “masters” have exacerbated social contradictions. In fact, to defend Moscow remained common people. The organization of defence, the Prince instructed his uncle, hero of the battle of Kulikovo Vladimir Serpukhovskoy, which by the standards of that time was already in advanced years. Sources indicate that, together with the public for built by Dmitry Donskoy strong white stone walls of the Kremlin hid a lot of newcomers who managed to escape from the executioners. According to one version, not Tatar-Mongols, and the citizens themselves burned the Posad was a measure for the defense.
Edigei troops surrounded Moscow on November 30. The rate of settling in the village of Kolomenskoye, Temnik sent a 30-strong elite squad in pursuit of Basil, however, to capture the Prince failed. Others not participating in the siege part of the Mongol army made devastating raids on the Dmitrov and Kolomna, Gorodets and Nizhny Novgorod, Pereslavl-Zalessky and Rostov, near Moscow — the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, and St. Sophia chronicle still Yuriev and Vereya. Each city was waiting for the same fate: total looting and burning. The population bore huge losses. However, Edigei was accompanied by a relative failure.
So, the Tver Prince Ivan Mikhailovich refused to follow orders and speak to Moscow with the Horde.
In the winter, and knowing the advantage of the new Kremlin walls, Edigei had not planned assault, intending to force the city to surrender by starvation. Taught by experience, the defenders have not caught on to the tricks, like Tokhtamysh. Each approximation “regiments filthy” they were met by fierce fire from all available guns and cannons-mattresses.
It was pitiful to see how wonderful the Church, which had been established many years and occasionally tall buildings adorned the Majesty of the city, in one hour lit the flame, and the Majesty and beauty of the castle, the marvellous churches, from the fire died. The hour was a terrible time, people were running and screaming, and the great flame and thunder rose into the air, while the city was under siege from the lawless foreigners,Michael Tihomirovy Soviet historian
Contrary to his plans, Yedigei stayed under Moscow just three weeks. Soon came the messengers of the Barn, who told us about the attempted coup against Khan Bulat, who was almost captured by the conspirators. Being in a desperate situation, Khan demanded the immediate return of his army.
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It is not the intention of the ambitious Edigei, who himself claimed to be the Supreme power in the Golden Horde. Of course, he didn’t want to leave Moscow land without replenishment of his Treasury.
If you believe Ermolinskaya chronicle, the defenders were not aware of political events in the Barn and put the Horde troops needed to flee Russia.