In the Solar system, found the strange water
In the rings of Saturn and the satellites most of its water is remarkably similar to earth. However, the water on one of the moons — Phoebe is unlike any other in the Solar system. The results came to such conclusions astronomers accepted for publication in the journal Icarus.
Any chemical element has several isotopes same number of protons in the nucleus and electrons in orbits around them, but different number of neutrons. Some elements have only one stable isotope, while others can have more. Isotopes have the same chemical properties and can be part of the same substances. However, the physical properties they differ slightly. In particular, due to the difference in the mass of the nuclei, which leads to changes in spectra of atoms and molecules, scientists can determine the isotopic composition of a substance based on observations.
Astronomers are interested in the water, one of hydrogen atoms which are heavier isotope — deuterium. As a result, this molecule is approximately 5% heavier than normal. This difference can significantly affect the process of formation of cosmic bodies, so scientists in their work often use the ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H). The modern model of Solar system formation predict that in the long cold areas in the water can be increased content of deuterium. According to some calculations, on Saturn, he should meet approximately 10 times more often than on the Ground.
In the new work of American astronomers studied the bodies in the Saturn system using the improved method in which they measured the isotope ratios in the water.
It turned out that almost all the bodies next to that a giant planet including its rings, water similar to the earth. However, the small satellite Phoebe D/H were extremely high, almost a record for the Solar system.
Also, astronomers have measured the ratio of carbon isotopes C13/C12. The satellite yapet ratio appeared to be close to the earth, and Phoebe is five times higher. The authors believe that this may indicate that Phoebe was formed far beyond what is now. And to the place where she is now, Phoebe migrated under the influence of gravity. How much further to say yet, because at the moment we have no data on the isotopic composition of the bodies of objects beyond the orbit of Pluto.
About the main events in the space sector for 2018 read in this collection.
Equipment: Camera Nikon D810 Lens AF S NIKKOR 105mm, tripod, ISO 64, exposure — of 0.3, 0.6 and 1.3 seconds.
Nicolas Lefto — optical engineer, physicist and mathematician. According to him, his first camera was a Soviet “Zenit”. In his work he uses an automated set of cameras that shoot in accordance with the created algorithm.
Your the sun of the jury recognized the best in this category he called “the sun King, a little king, and God of war.”
Equipment: Telescope PlaneWave CDK 12.5, with filters Astrodon Gen II LRGB, Ha lens Baarder 2541 mm, tripod Astro Physics 900, camera SBIG STXL-11000.
Stephen Moore also enjoys to shoot complex automated system of two telescopes — one is for aiming, the other for the actual shooting. The system used by Moore, worth several thousand dollars.
Mor this year won in the nomination “the Shooting of the galaxy” with a photograph titled “the Mysterious galaxy”.
Equipment: camera Nikon D810 lens 14 mm f/4.0, ISO 2500, Shutter speed — 20 seconds.
The winning in the category “People and space” and has taken the Grand Prix, author brad Goldplat called “Movement soul.”
Goldplat is a professional photographer who shoots wildlife and the night sky. He also makes videoaudio in an accelerated time, which can be viewed on his website.
JORDI DELPEIX BORRELL4/11
Equipment: telescope Celestron C-14, tripod Sky-Watcher NEQ6 Pro camera ZWO ASI 224MC, 4200 mm f/12, shutter speed — 2-milliseconds.
The boundary between the moon’s Sea of tranquility and the Sea clear with inverted colors — the best photo of the moon this year. It took the Spaniard Jordi, Delphi, Borrell from Barcelona. Borelli, not for the first time wins the competition: she took the award for best photo of the moon last year.
Equipment: camera Sony ILCE-7S2, lens 20 mm f/1.4, shutter speed — 3.2 seconds.
In the category “best picture of the Northern lights” won our friend Nicolas Lefto. He used a relatively long exposure to create the effect of “traffic star highway” towards Aurora.
Equipment: telescope Takahashi FSQ 106 ED, tripod Astro-Physics 1200 GTO camera Canon EOS 6D Cooling Mod CDS, 530 mm f/5, ISO 1600, total exposure to six hours.
The called “the Dust of the southern crown” Mario is one of the Italian city of Palladio. 58-year-old Who writes bought his first camera at the age of 16, and immediately started to shoot the stars. Almost all of my photo shoots Who in the area of lake Braies in the North of Italy.
Equipment: Camera Sony SLT-A99V DSLR, a Minolta 80-200 lens 135mm, exposure time of 300 seconds (X50) .
In this photo, in pastel colours depict the movement of Alamak — the third brightest star in the constellation of Andromeda — in the sky. Hungarian Ferenc Zemar took it off in February. The won in the category of “heavenly landscape”.
Equipment: Takahashi FSQ106 telescope at 106 mm, a tripod and the Paramount ME mount, camera SBIG STL-11000M, exposure: LRGB: 30 minutes.
Nomination “the lens” — photo taken robotic systems in semi-Autonomous mode. This photograph, taken a prominent astrophotographer and astronomer Daniel Picha with the help of the automated system, captures the constellation of the Pleiades and the passing of the comet him.
Equipment: self-assembled reflecting telescope 444 mm, infrared filter Astronomik 807nm IR self-assembled Equatorial platform, camera ZWO ASI174MM extract -5,3 seconds.
“Grace Venus” is the name of the Briton Martin Lewis, a winner in the nomination “the best photo of planet, comet or asteroid”. Planet photos Venus.
Equipment: NIKON D810A camera, lens 35 mm f/2, exposure time 120 seconds (x4).
The photo with the gloomy title “the Curtain” — the landscape of Inner Mongolia from the radio Observatory designed to study the Sun. The author of the picture — Whether Tianhong.
Equipment: camera Canon EOS 5D Mark III, lens 50 mm, exposure time — 8 seconds.
Fabian Dalpiaz from the Italian town of Castelrotto, this year, was named best young photographer. In its 16 years, Dalpiaz received prizes in the competition twice, both times in his age category.