One hundred points for the exam — the genes or the right education?
MOSCOW, 1 sen — news, Alfia Enikeeva. The unified state exam today at one hundred percent to determine in which students will learn student yesterday and will be there at all. As a rule, more likely to get high scores in children whose parents were high achievers, scientists say. But genetic factors and General intelligence do not play in school success as important as previously thought.
Upof good Genes and bad ratings
In may 2016, the journal Nature published an article whose authors claimed to have found DNA responsible for the desire for knowledge. An international team of scientists analyzed about 300 thousand individual genomes were identified in 74 region in human DNA, presumably affecting the ability to learn and to do science.
Most of these genetic variations is located in areas of the genome, which in the adult are inactive: they are associated with fetal brain development.
In other words, after the birth to change something already late, and that’s bad news. And good that the found variations are responsible for the minor differences in achievement levels among the study participants, no more than one percent.
For example, people with no “good” versions of the “influential” section of DNA was approximately nine weeks of study to catch up with those who by nature got two exact copies of this segment.
The authors identified a region of DNA should not be considered “education genes” in our genome contains hundreds of thousands, if not millions of such sites. Their role has not been fully established, and, according to numerous studies on success in school environment affects not less, than genetics.
Not everything is genetics
To understand the contribution of genetics and environmental factors in academic success and level of education, it is appropriate to conduct extensive research on twins, especially those who grew up in different families. Ideally, that one was brought up workers, and the second was adopted by University teachers.
But there are very few pairs of twins, so scientists have to compare identical twins, having one hundred percent common genes, and dz twins (only half of the total genes). If any feature identical twins more similar than dz, it is possible to say that this quality is inherited genetically.
After a large-scale survey 6653 pairs of twins (2362 a pair of identical twins, 2155 duagava couples of the same sex and duagava 2136 couples of different sexes), British researchers found that the heritability of test scores higher than the heritability of General intelligence, and is about 62 percent.
In other words, the children of high achievers are likely to be better in school than those whose parents have received three and the mental faculties do not play a special role.
To the fore the personal qualities, behavior problems, and self-discipline. In addition, the success of pupils in the school depend on the situation at home and school, and psychological well-being.
Children from wealthy families to start early to read and count, even if you do not attend a course on early development and school readiness, confirmed by American scientists. According to a large-scale study, which analyzed data from seven thousand preschoolers, more than half of the cases progress in the study determined the socio-economic situation of the family, health and education.