People who do not know how to smile
A smile is an important part of the process of communication with other people. But if you are not able to smile?
Home Kevin Portillo learns to smile every day. Usually right after I brush my teeth. Or when it is next to the bathroom. Or any other place where there is a mirror.
He puts his index fingers in the corners of the mouth and slowly pulls up. He pulls his lips like in a kiss, then round down, flexing facial muscles. He learns to smile like Mona Lisa — barely noticeable, and then a wide Hollywood smile.
He needs to do these exercises every day. Because he’s 13 years old, it happens that Kevin forgets. However, he is aware of their importance:
I need to stretch the cheeks. I’ve been doing this for a few minutes, and have to do it every day.
Sometimes he is practicing until, until it starts to hurt your jaw.
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Kevin was born in new Jersey with a rare malignant vascular tumor, kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas that covered the left side of his face, holding his left eye closed and Smedava nose to the right.
Immediately after birth, the doctors transferred him to a hospital in another state, the children’s hospital of Philadelphia. Mother of Kevin next time I saw him after eight days.
The doctor said the boy’s parents that the chances of life it is small. But Kevin survived.
But most of the swelling and damage after its removal has deprived him of one of the fundamental things for a human’s ability to smile.
From the point of view of physiology, a smile is a pretty understandable thing. There are 17 pairs of muscles that control the expression of a human face, plus the circular muscle of the mouth, the orbicularis oris.
Our main smile is essentially two pairs of muscles — large and small zygomatic zygomatic. They pulled the corners of the mouth deepen and the nasolabial folds.
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Often this is accompanied by depending on the thoughts or experiencing emotions — the work of other facial muscles, e.g., levator labii superioris, raising his upper lip.
However, once we leave the realm of physiology, as the smile becomes something mysterious.
This contraction of the facial muscles left their mark in the history of mankind — from ancient Greek statues, created 2500 years ago, to emojis, to help us a little pepper and salt daily online communication.
The difference in the habit of smiling depends on the sex (usually women do this more often) and the culture of the country. Smile definitely helps communication — people smile more in public and when interacting with other people than when they are alone.
Scientists have shown that a smile is much easier to identify than any other expression. But they don’t know why this is so.
“We understand very well, when a person smiles, says aleš Martinez, a Professor of computer science the Ohio state University and founder of the scientific laboratory of computational biology and cognitive science.
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“Why? No one can yet answer. I’ll show you a picture of only 10 milliseconds, and you will be able to tell me that there is smile. Any other face this will not work.”
Puzzled that fear, for example, requires recognition 25 times more time than a smile. “To see fear on your face is extremely important for survival, says Martinez. But we arranged it so.”
Other studies have shown that smiling faces are perceived as more familiar than faces with a neutral expression. Scholars such as martínez, share the theory that smiles as well as grimaces and other facial expressions is what is left to us from that time, when humanity still did not speak.
The language of the people began to develop about 100,000 years ago, but the expressions of which are older, it appeared the most distant of our ancestors.
“Before we started to communicate using words, we were forced to communicate via facial expressions,” says Martinez.
Interpretation of the nuances of a smile has always fascinated people — examples of this we find in the history of art, and our everyday experiences, and in most modern works on creation of artificial intelligence.
For example, in a study of 2016 were interviewed thousands of people, representing 44 different cultures. They showed photographs of faces of eight people: four smile, four — without her.
Most people think of smiling as more trustworthy. In some countries, such as Switzerland, Australia and Fillippino is manifested most strongly. In others, Pakistan, Russia, and France — not so much.
But in countries such as Iran, India and Zimbabwe, smiling in General not considered more worthy of trust.
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Why? This question is also difficult, but the researchers made the conclusion: it all depends on whether the society is arranged so that its members can assess the fairness of attitudes.
“Where the higher the level of corruption, there is less trust to those who smile” the authors write. It reminds us of a very old idea that the smile is the opposite of pious solemnity.