The scientific cover-up
Monologues scientist about ethics and experiments on human beings. Experiments on people to change the DNA that take place in China, discussing in the Western media. The purpose of the Chinese scholars — the victory over cancer. To get closer to her to help not only new technology but also legislation that quietly refers to the experiments on human beings, despite the fact that some patients after treatment died.
How to change medical ethics in the world and why monstrous studies are still carried out, in his speech at the festival of Science Bar Hopping told the employee of laboratory of psychogenetic age of Psychological Institute of RAO Ilya Zakharov. The portal iz.ru recorded the points of the speech.
Primeval twentieth century
Attitude towards human experimentation in science started to change recently. What, for example, all people have equal rights, it has become clear only in the second half of the twentieth century. And before that all the ethical rules answered, for example, conducting experiments on the sterilization of people in North Africa. Also was considered absolutely ethical to learn how to react detainees at the us prison at San Quentin for the transplant of testicles. Living prisoners transplanted the testicles of deceased prisoners, including to study the effects on testosterone, and even for the study of sexual orientation.
At that time it was thought that it can be changed and need and the easiest way to do this through the transplant of testicles. Also no questions to the Japanese experiments by infecting people with syphilis. When they took healthy people, most often, it was too the prisoners were infected with syphilis and watched what was happening to them. All this and much more took place in the early twentieth century.
The history of attitudes to science and experiments clearly divided the Second world war. In 1948 there was the most translated document in the world — the Charter of human rights. The only document in which humanity has recognized that all people on Earth have some rights. Before that, it was uncommitted idea of the humanists, and many who were willing not to agree with her.
Based on the Charter, and in the case of the Nazi doctors who conducted experiments on people in concentration camps, was formulated in the Nuremberg code. He was the first document that scientists had to consider in the research. For example, nowhere was stated that it is “absolutely necessary condition of the experiment on humans is the voluntary consent of the latter” or “in the experiment should avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury” and “no experiment should not be conducted if there is reason to believe the possibility of death or injury invalidusername test”.
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Despite the adoption of these documents, around the world, continued unethical human experimentation. Branded eugenics was very interested in the management of birth, and the first eugenic experiments in the early twentieth century was concerned primarily with forced sterilization. The last of this kind of eugenic program in Europe was completed in 1976 in Switzerland. And it was not as large as the one held in the U.S. state of North Carolina, where from 1945 to mid-1970s were sterilized 6.5 million people, of whom 2.5 million were minors. And the Committee on eugenics of North Carolina in the end is not closed, only renamed.
Also after the Second world war, San Francisco began a 20-year experiment where people carpet spray contaminated with the bacterium Serratia marcescens. It is in principle a very dangerous virus that can nonetheless lead to death. In the beginning of the experiment no one knew about these side effects, but also to check not bother. And this is not related to the prisoners.
If we talk about prisoners, for example, at the University of Pennsylvania in 1950 women were infected with hepatitis to test a certain type of medication. And in the prisons of Ohio in the 1950s, researchers implanted people line cancer cells. It did not lead to cancer, but researchers about it initially did not know.
Perhaps the most unethical experiment began in America before the Second world war and lasted until the 1980s. a well-Known study in Takigi, which has undermined for many years the poor population of America and trust in doctors. Then the program that was positioned as free medical examinations from the state, picked up people infected with syphilis. And doctors deliberately did not treat them, and watched as the disease, how the patient’s condition over time.