Where did the minimum wage.
In Russia raised the level of the minimum wage. In other countries about the minimum wage also do not forget — she somehow grows despite the fact that the agreement in the economic consequences here.
The battle for $15
If you take the major capitalist power, the US, minimum wage at the Federal level last time I promoted there in 2009, now it is $7.5 per hour.
In real terms, adjusted for inflation, it has since decreased by 13%. But since 1968, when the minimum wage in current dollars was at a historic peak — $11,38 per hour ($1.6 dollars at the time), is generally decreased by a third. Opinion polls show that 75% of Americans today dream about $9 per hour; thus, the 1968 should be submitted to them by the top of happiness. However, the Republican-controlled Congress does not Express any desire to meet the public.
However, in the States minimum wage indicated on the Federal level, is not so decisive.
Some States and municipalities establish the level of minimum wages at their discretion.
Protracted public campaign “fight for $15” has led to the fact that in 29 States and the district of Columbia minimum wage exceeded the Federal rate, the same in 40 municipalities. And the city of SeaTac, Washington, has reached the goal of the campaign in a literal sense; there the opponents and proponents of enhancement together spent $264 on each member’s vote, to attract him to their side, it is a record of the United States.
The first national minimum wage law was enacted in 1894 in New Zealand. Then in 1896, later Australian state of Victoria. There were councils on wages, where employees and employers were represented in equal shares and decisions on minimum wages, adopted by a vote, it was mandatory for employers.
So even then there was some contradiction. On the one hand, the state determined the level of the minimum wage. On the other, it could vary by enterprise, sector or region.
Nevertheless, Australian experience has become a model for British Trade Boards Act of 1909. In the Australian and the British government by means of law guaranteed minimum wage to everyone, regardless of gender and age.
In the United States was not so. For the first time the minimum wage was established there in 1912 in Massachusetts. And in 1913, this practice introduced another eight States. But the decision on the minimum wage applied only to working women and children. It was the position of trade unions. They were strongly opposed to the state guaranteed minimum wage primary labor force — men, because they were vitally interested in increasing the number of members. Having received these guarantees from the state, thought the trade unions, men will lose the urge to join the ranks of the organized fighters with employers.
In 1923, minimum wages for women and children was established by law in 15 States, Puerto Rico and the district of Columbia. In the same year, the U.S. Supreme court recognized all these laws invalid. And up until 1933 in the US minimum wages are not in any way determined, neither at Federal level nor at the state level.
In the midst of the great depression in 1933, the Federal law introduced a minimum wage for men and women. Two years later the Supreme court declared this law unconstitutional. But the minimum size of the remuneration is still determined by the law of the several States, and in 1938 a law was again enacted on the Federal level — the minimum wage was $0.25 an hour for those “who are engaged in enterprises whose activities affect several States”; within seven years the rate had to be increased to $0.4 in the hour.
Minimum wage — the maximum interest
C the outbreak of the Second world war, the minimum wage has become a hot subject of public interest. Anyway, in 1940 the American public about it and spoke. It was considered that the beginning of an economic boom due to the growth in defense spending, which reached $2 billion, as well as activity of Britain in the purchase of American military goods.
Output relative to 1929, gained 20%. Employment compared to 1939 in connection with the military orders grew by 1 million people, and in 1941, as predicted by the Ministry of labour were to increase by another 500 thousand In the number of branches designated labor shortages, especially in aviation, where since 1939, the employment has doubled.
Of course, in the defense industry plays a special role qualified staff and skilled labor is expensive labor. Especially when it is in short supply. In the aviation industry with workers under the leadership of trade unions have achieved the maximum result in the increase in the minimum wage level. It grew from $0.5 to $0,62 per hour. Employers (who are in the defense industry have received significant profit) in this case to resist the staff could not.