Anyone here not a place
Natalia Nechleba went in Likino-Dulevo and saw what was left of the main textile factories of the USSR.
The transformation of the once flourishing settlements in the zone of desolation, depopulation (there are experts such a term) not only villages, but whole towns — a problem for the country has long been urgent, but prescriptions solutions and not having. Meanwhile, today we are talking not about separate “Islands of trouble”, and of entire territories: the gaping holes grow, like a tumor, and it is a sad phenomenon causes both confusion, and pain. Why is this happening? Is it possible this sad process to stop? “Spark” has tried to answer both questions, visiting the ruins of the factory in Likino-Dulyovo (from it to the capital at hand) and talking to experts.
…Brick wall with four rows of broken Windows on the street Soviet, two barracks and a vacant lot in 17 acres — all that remained of the main textile factories of the USSR. On the vacant lot the boys boarded-up plywood booth with the words “Sale of non-ferrous metals” wiring the fire and throw firecrackers at him. “Hey, aunt, to the cross did not go, it will.” — they cry. Crosses of thin twigs in a vacant lot marks the spot where you can fall down a meter and a half in the basement of a former factory.
— God, here now, only films about the war to remove, says Dina Efimova, she worked for the company unlovability 34 years.— Our factory was one of the biggest, 4 thousand people were working. The whole town she was feeding. Two spinning mills, three weaving workshop. Cotton from Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran brought. We did technical fabrics and cloth for the army. Supplied not only throughout the Union but also in Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Cuba, Nicaragua, Mongolia… At the factory there were four barracks where the workers lived, five kindergartens, a children’s camp, two schools, a vocational school, a boiler house that heated the whole town, hospital, stadium, bath. A huge technical library. Club. Song band, musical ensemble, a hockey team. In the 1970s, factory built new homes for employees. I as a young professional at the age of 26 one-bedroom apartment received. There, the bone tissue was connected to a continuous one large canvas left. But in the end all the pieces fell apart.
Silk and Lenin
In the summer of 1845, on the Klyazma river near the village of Likino capsized ferry, which was carrying self-sewed the pieces of silk. The peasants of nearby villages were caught and pulled the silk. The most enterprising was Vasily Smirnov. He pulled 14 pieces and a few bought from the villagers. Stuffed them whole shed. In 1849, thanks to the “silk capital”, organized a small production with its hand weaving. This was the beginning of the manufacture with multi-million dollar.
His son Alex had inherited an institution with 70 workers. And after 20 years of silk history have built stone two-story factory, where he worked for 2400 workers. In 1900 the factory produced a different fabric on 6 million roubles. Smirnov was built for its workers exemplary barracks with running water, Sewerage, electric light, telephone, bath and hospital. In a long room in the barracks housed four families. Each in his corner. So came the expression “to your corner.” Ceilings — 3 meters. So everything is built on a loft on the second floor where the children slept. If the families who lived in one room, transported and adults worked in different shifts, then we met the neighbors rarely.
In 1966, the “Spark” has published the story of one of the oldest workers Likino manufactory, Praskov Timokhina. Worker model socialist enterprise, told how life was before.
The land we had never been, and we moved in Likino. Smirnov there firmly swung. Rented a room. Mother and father slept on the bed, and the children on the floor. Head against the wall, legs under the table. Three years later the father became an apprentice, her mother was a weaver, and the Manager gave the room in a government building…Praskovya Mikhaylovna
The era of barter licence recall with a shudder: factory exchanged the cloth on the shoes, Wallpaper, furniture, porcelain, appliances, jeans, sausage, bicycles, linoleum, candy, cereal.
Sighed: to pay five times less and the room is big. In our family, the Ivanovs had six children and two adults. In 1906, for his 16 years, and I became 26 cents a day to. My cousin Grinka our family has lived, too, went to work: 15 cents brought. Hungry did not sit.
Products in the factory shop for a book received. When smaller went to the factory, became one of the calculation to stay, then a dozen. Holiday bought, galoshes…
Just wear them was impossible — in the mud stuck: around swamps, clay. The youth, however, forsee. Wearing galoshes and a barracks corridor walks. Meet. Compliments say. Teenagers from behind the door watching, envious. Grinka all dreamed of rubbers to buy. But it was not necessary. The warehouse fire happened, and he drove to pull apart cotton. He sadocha. Fourteen it was not.
Alexei Smirnov left the sons in the inheritance of 10 million rubles, and the factory in 1914, worked for 3750 people, with a turnover of 8.5 million rubles. Sergey Smirnov, who entered the main family asset was a liberal. After the February revolution of 1917 became one of the organizers of the all-Russian Union of trade and industry (then known as the RSPP), became the fourth member of the Provisional government as the state Comptroller (in October he was arrested in the Winter Palace together with the Ministers of the Provisional government).
The fate of the production, however, is not affected, just kept getting worse and worse. In may 1917 the price of food compared to pre-war increased by 482 percent, clothing and footwear 5.5 times. The factory worker is not paid a salary, but supplied the products — Smirnov opened “Harkaway shop.” In August he decided not to close the factory: war and the revolution left without raw materials and distribution.
“After the February revolution of Smirnova, and the company is rassobachilis — said “Light” Praskovya Mikhaylovna, then the factory will open, then closed. For downtime do not pay. Decided to go to Kerensky: let help. All workers signed a letter to Kerensky. The Kerensky them, clearly, was not allowed, and took Palchinsky, sir, too, is seen in large ranks. Cursed, postnasal hard labor for sabotage. “Mr. Smirnov — support of the new state. He knows what he’s doing.” In the shops goods are available, and the workers penniless. Berries, picking mushrooms, potatoes from the peasants up. And children are dying…”.
In the autumn of 1917 workers went to the new government.
Vladimir Ilyich received licences fast, documents looked, for a long time tortured, struggling with the manufacturers, and thoughtful. He is silent, and our silence. Then he wrote the resolution, and the words added: “If you can start up a factory. But only with the proviso that the money the state did not request. They are not”.Praskovya Mikhaylovna
So in November 1917, was signed the first Soviet Decree on the nationalization of the company: “the Factory of the partnership Likino manufactory of A. Smirnov in the village of Likino, Vladimir province, with all the objects in it materials, raw materials and other things to declare the property of the Russian Republic.”
The change in status was beneficial: hungry work Likino helped other factories in Orekhovo-Zuevo district (deducted in their favor once a month one-day earnings, pursued the so-called plate collections), the Moscow Soviet of workers ‘and soldiers’ deputies issued a new proletarian rule 256 thousand rubles. Working for the first time in 4 months got 30 rubles of the advance. All the property of the factory was taken under protection. Export it without the permission of the Soviets from the factory is strictly forbidden.