Laika: the heroine of the cosmos, which had no chance to return

Laika: the heroine of the cosmos, which had no chance to return

60 years ago, the earth being first left their home planet. November 3, the second Soviet Earth satellite was thrown into orbit, the dog Laika.

Back four-legged lady who discovered the Universe is not returned by opening a list of the victims of the space, first animals and then people.

In 1948-1961 years in the way space man paved 48 dogs, 15 monkeys and two rabbits. 27 animals died due to accidents and various unforeseen circumstances. Laika was the only one who deliberately sent into certain death.

“What will surprise?”

Khrushchev was so pleased with the triumph of the first satellite, which he called the Queen and asked for a memorable date – the 40th anniversary of Soviet power is to run something. Korolev proposed using the multi-million dollar missiles to kill a dog.Alexander Nakanowatari, publicist

Nikita Khrushchev openly considered space exploration as a propaganda race with America.

On the one hand, he allocated a lot of resources, on the other hand, until his removal from power in 1964, did not allow scientists and designers to work calmly and systematically, every few months straining their sacramental question: “What else will surprise?”.

Sensational flight of the first Sputnik on 4 October 1957, and on October 12 the head of the government has demanded from Sergey Korolev something spectacular for the 40th anniversary of Soviet power.

Time was nothing at all. Decided to send into orbit the dog, which was a two-year-old pooch named Laika.

According to reports, ahead of time, such action was not planned. The author of the idea is unknown. Modern researcher Alexander Nikonov suggests that Khrushchev agreed because never in my life had a dog.

The experiment has failed. To return Laika to Earth, and so are not supposed to, but the plan was to live in space for a week, and suffocated due to overheating of the cabin after six hours. The Soviet government hid this fact.

The only scientific result was the proof of principle of the ability to stay living creature in orbit. However, in this and so there is little doubt.

Dog casting

Technical parameters of the ship have restricted the animal’s weight 6-7 pounds, and the height at withers of 35 cm.

Purebred dogs biologists felt pampered and encouraged a stray who passed the severe school of survival. “Canine cosmonaut” were recruited mainly on the streets.

The experimenters prefer to work with dogs female sex as being more obedient.

For the installation of sensors better suited to smooth-haired dogs, and for photos and filming — which took in color large white spots.

Of the 10 pre-selected candidates after the test in the chamber, on the centrifuge and shaker left three: Albina, Laika and Fly. Albina was pregnant and the Fly was rejected because the screen badly crooked legs. To die and to go down in history dropped the Husky.

Equipment is not useful

“Sputnik-2” technically was not designed for landing.

It was a tapered cylinder with a height of about four meters and a base diameter of two meters. Laika is in a capsule the size of a washing machine with a device for chemical regeneration of air for up to seven days of operation, and an automatic trough twice a day open the lid of the container with the jelly-like formula.

Surgeons implanted the Husky breath sensor to the edges and the pulse sensor near the carotid artery. The wires were drawn to the machine “KMA-01”, it can also measure temperature and pressure and a cardiogram.

Last days at Baikonur dog every day you would sit for hours in the capsule to get used to the environment.

By itself, the launching and retrieving of information – all very cool. But when you realize that you can’t get that Husky that you can’t do anything, and anybody, not only I can’t bring her back, this is a very heavy feeling. When I launch returned to Moscow, and there on the radio, in the Newspapers rejoicing, I was out of town. Wanted uedineniya Hasenheide, Director of the Institute of space medicine

After reaching orbit automation was to weaken the ropes that were attached jumpsuit Likes to let her sit, stand and move a bit forward and backward.

In the morning of November 3 capsule mounted on a rocket. After some time watching the dog, the staff noticed that she was thirsty. The mixture in the trough provided sufficient for the number of fluids, but people were opening door and gave her water.

The spacecraft was launched from Baikonur at half past five in the morning Moscow time. Telemetry data showed that Laika seems to have handled the overload, but the capsule began to heat up, the temperature exceeded 40 degrees and approximately six hours (four orbits around the Earth) instruments recorded cardiac arrest.

Companion with the dead Laika made 2370 coils and burned up in the atmosphere April 14, 1958.

A government Commission, vyasnyanka that was wrong with the system of thermoregulation, ordered to carry out experiments with similar conditions on the Ground, killing two dogs.