The “Hollywood ten”: as grass of the Communists in the factory of dreams
70 years ago the United States began the famous case of the “Hollywood ten”, marked the beginning of the phenomenon known as McCarthyism and the “witch hunt” — by analogy with the called manic suspicion of the repressions against innocent women in the Middle ages.
October 20, 1947 the house UN-American activities of the house of representatives of the USA Congress began hearings on Communist influence in the American film industry, for participation in which from Hollywood to Washington called on the agenda 43 the Director, screenwriter and actor.
It is believed that in the ensuing seven years, from accusations of “pinkness” has affected your career and your reputation approximately three thousand people.
An important tool
An essential element of the system of checks and balances in the American political system are hearings in Congress.
Both chambers entitled separately from each other to create permanent and temporary commissions, call for a public testimony of any citizen, to bring him to the oath, and the ability to ask questions.
Failure to appear without good reason or refusal to answer may result in criminal prosecution and a lie by far it will lead.
In some cases, a person has the right to refuse questioning, but that will damage his reputation.
Commissions are not courts. Participants have the status of witnesses, not the accused, and can only be punished by public censure.
If in the course of parliamentary investigation is a violation of the witness of the law, the case against him will excite law enforcement agencies.
How this works is described in detail in the novel, Lionel white’s “Rafferty” on a corrupt Union boss caught on the Senate hearings, in which the Union had rented a movie.
The house UN-American activities of the lower house of Congress (House Un-American Activities Committee) existed from 1934 to 1975.
Its head is often erroneously referred to as Joseph McCarthy. In fact, the Chairman of the Commission was Congressman John Thomas.
McCarthy was a Senator and chaired the standing Senate Subcommittee on investigations dealing about the same, but eventually became the chief ideologue and the face of the campaign.
Adjective un-American in exact translation means “non-us”, that is, activities directed and funded from abroad.
Initially the Commission was created to fight against the influence of the Nazis.
The head of the foreign Department of the National socialist German workers ‘ party, Ernst Bole and Hitler himself had placed great hopes in America, where the number of descendants of German immigrants reached 30 million (from approximately 130 million people of the population).
But as lamented the Fuhrer in one of the after-dinner conversations, the Germans in the US “just go bad”.
The Commission remained dormant until 1945 when she found a new occupation.
“Complacency and weakness”
The Alliance against Hitler naturally led in America to the rising popularity of everything Russian, Joseph Stalin, whom the local press in the family called “uncle Joe” and the local Communists. President Franklin Roosevelt, which, according to their standards to the left, do not interfere.
Who served with him in the years 1940-1944 the post of Vice-President Henry Wallace during the war, visited Magadan, looked at arranged for him NKVD Potemkin village and return the “authoritative” stated that forced labour in the USSR there.
Soviet displaced persons, begging not to give them, American officers said, “If your Stalin was bad, don’t vote for him in the next election!”. Was it naivety or exceptional cynicism, is hard to say.
The commander of the American “air castle”, which in November 1945, fired at and forced to land in Korea, Soviet fighter aircraft, was amazed when he was asked why he did not open fire in response, “How to shoot in Russian?!”.
After the Fulton speech of Winston Churchill, Stalin said at a meeting of the Politburo: “We have to stop the mood of complacency and ideological weakness. In our current poorly closed door capitalist strongly blowing winds. The door is now shut, and firmly”.
The Commission is terrorizing America. The Congress itself has gradually become captive of their offspring.Frances Bedminister of justice under President Roosevelt
The American right has acted, of course, not Stalin’s methods, but also thought that it was time “to stop complacency”.
The number of Communist party USA by 1945 reached a historical maximum in 50 thousand people. For a huge country is a bit, the electoral chances of the Communists was close to zero.
But there was one thing that could potentially make them a powerful force. Among the members of the party and especially its supporters — was a disproportionate amount of intellectuals, and primarily filmmakers.
Played the role of another factor. After too long, according to opponents, the 12-year reign of Roosevelt and the dominance of the Democratic party in the elections of 1946 the Republicans had a majority in Congress and didn’t miss any occasion to insert rivals pin.