Scientists have found the cause of the cold summer of 2017
Scientists from Russia and the USA have studied the processes of reduction of sea ice in the Arctic ocean and predict what effects it will bring to the Earth’s climate.
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Weather anomalies, in particular a cold and rainy summer of 2017 in the European territory of Russia, most likely, was the result of the reduction of the ice area of the Arctic ocean. Research supported by a grant from the Russian science Foundation (RNF). The results published in the journal Environmental Research Letters.
Warm ocean currents bring warm water from the Atlantic ocean into the Arctic basin and the Barents sea, so the ice is melting faster. Ice-free waters absorb solar energy and warm up quickly, giving excess of heat and moisture in the atmosphere. Then the air flows and large storms redistribute heat and moisture in almost all areas of the Arctic, which leads to changes in the energy balance between the ocean and atmosphere. In particular, the researchers found that significantly increases the downward longwave radiation (NDI). This infrared (heat) radiation emitted primarily by water vapor and clouds, and addressed to the earth’s surface. The increase in Yisrael Beiteinu promotes the heating and melting of the Arctic sea ice.
Russian scientists have noticed that large storms and the regime of atmospheric circulation would seriously affect the state of the ice cover. For example, storm Frank, which took place in December 2015, brought to high latitudes of the Arctic abnormally high temperature (deviation from average climatic temperature was 16°C), and the flow of Yisrael Beiteinu increased by 60 W/ m2 (compared to climate normal). As a result, the decrease of ice thickness in some regions of the Arctic ocean reached 10 cm.
Data on sea ice scientists received from the satellites, and the fields distributions of temperature, pressure, humidity and radiation from the so-called reanalysis product (ERA-Interim). The reanalysis is a computer model assimilating long-term data of observations (radiosonde, aircraft, etc.) for different characteristics of the atmosphere.