Among seniors, the doctors have not found a completely healthy
For the eleventh class, not a single student with no medical pathologies.
If first graders are absolutely healthy 4.3% of pupils, among the pupils such does not. During training at school among children increases the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease, scoliosis and myopia.
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To such conclusion experts of the Institute of hygiene and health of children and adolescents FGAU “national scientific-practical center of child healthcare” of the Ministry of health who conducted the survey since 2005 and 2015 in Moscow schools.
Doctor of medical Sciences, Professor, head of the laboratory of scientific foundations of the schools of health, Institute of hygiene and health of children and adolescents FGAU “national scientific and practical center of children’s health” of Ministry of health of the Russian Federation Irina Rapoport told “Izvestia” that all clinical observations were conducted for 426 children from four schools located in different districts of Moscow.
For 11 years every year in April, the doctors conducted a survey of children in schools. It included a pediatric examination, a three-fold measurement of blood pressure, the examination by the podiatrist and ophthalmologist, neurologist, otolaryngologist, and a cardiologist.
Were also conducted surveys of students to identify complaints and surveys of parents to clarify the history of functional disorders and chronic disease among schoolchildren. In total, there were conducted more than 25 thousand medical examinations and analyzed 3,6 thousand questionnaires.
As a result, in the first grade to the first group of health, that is absolutely healthy, was referred 4.3% of the observed students, and by the end of the school such students were not at all.
During the same period there was a decrease related of II group of health (practically healthy) from 44.4% to 34.0%. At the same time increased the number of children suffering from chronic disease (III and IV) from 0 to 4.6%.
In total, from 2005 to 2015 among children, the prevalence of functional abnormalities has increased by 14.7%, and of chronic diseases — by 52.8%.
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Among functional abnormalities are the most common: disorders of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, respiratory system, nervous system and mental sphere, disorders of sight. And among chronic — peptic ulcer disease, gastroduodenitis, scoliosis, myopia of high to medium.
Irina Rapoport noted that compared to the early 1990s, that is, for 25 years, the state of health of schoolchildren on the prevalence of functional abnormalities deteriorated 2.4−2.7 times, and the frequency of occurrence of chronic diseases by 40-70%. However, the diet at a time in educational institutions was worse than it is now.
— Constantly growing workload, children are in a stressful situation in connection with the preparation and delivery of the Unified state exam and exams in the 9th grade. Reorganization of educational institutions also impact on the psychological climate in schools. All these psychological factors have led to an increased incidence of psychosomatic diseases in children, — said the Professor.
She also noted that the incidence of disabilities is higher for boys compared to girls, for almost the entire period of schooling.
However, the class of 11 girls surpass classmates-the boys on the prevalence of functional disorders and chronic diseases.
— This is because, on the one hand, girls are faster are included in the learning process than boys, and better able to cope with the school load. However, in high school they are more zealously engaged than boys, more worried about the exams, as a result, they often develop psychosomatic disorders, — said Irina Rapoport.
The President of the League of defenders of patients Alexander Saversky said that if adults according to the labour code are allowed to work 40 hours a week, out of “Sanitary-epidemiological requirements to conditions and organization of training in educational institutions” use of children for study and homework takes about 47 hours.
For children learning is the same as for adult work. And we see that children are not simply overwhelmed, and are significantly longer than their parents, — said the expert. — My daughter is growing, I see the changes in the education system and how children have a hard time.
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Director of the Moscow center of education “Tsaritsyno”, people’s teacher of Russia Efim Rachevsky, by contrast, believes that the health status of children depends not on the school, and from heredity, nutrition and environment.
— You need to pay attention to what the air children breathe, what do you do at home and what you eat. School here at what? — the teacher said.
However, the head of the all-Russia society of protection of the rights of consumers of educational services Viktor Panin of the opposite opinion.
— The educational organization should maintain child health, with which he entered it. We need to pay more attention to the issue of prevention activities in schools. But not having a specific programme of action and criteria, principals are unable to work effectively in this direction, — said the expert.
Irina Rapoport reported that the data of the research Institute do not coincide with the statistics of the Ministry of health:
The Ministry of the picture is more rosy: a perfectly healthy 30% of students, and have chronic diseases (III health group) is only 20%, while our research has shown that perfectly healthy children in schools, virtually none, and chronic diseases were identified from 45-60% of students, depending on age.Irina Reportmaker of medical Sciences
Meanwhile, the press service of the Ministry of health “news” provided very different data — for the last time, according to the Ministry, increased the number of fully or healthy children, i.e. belonging to I and II group health, up to 84.6% of the total child population.
For the first 11 years of the research Institute of hygiene and health of children and adolescents FGAU “national scientific-practical center of child healthcare” of the Russian Ministry of health published a collection of “Guidance on medical support of students in educational institutions”. It provides step-by-step recommendations for the prevention of school due to illness. School recommendations are not implemented, and so far they are only available on the website of the Institute. At the same time, the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation noted that the recommendations will be taken into account in the work of the Ministry.
This difference in numbers can be explained by the quality of inspection of children in schools. In accordance with Ministry of health order N 1346н “About an Order of passage by minors of medical examinations, including admission to educational institutions and in training in them” once a year students and kindergartners undergo preventive medical examinations in clinics. On the basis of these surveys include children from one or other group health.
However, as experts note, these exams are usually formal and hasty, hence the low detection of health disorders and, as a consequence, good overall stats.