The essence of the Paris climate agreement and why is it important?
Developed in Paris in 2015 of a climate agreement for the first time in the history of United effort by all world powers to curb climate change. Why is it important and what are its main provisions?
According to numerous reports, the US President Donald trump made the decision on the country’s withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement. He intends to announce his decision on Thursday evening.
The Paris agreement includes a commitment to reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.
The implementation of the agreement was discussed at the summit “the Big seven” in Italy on Saturday.
The essence of the Paris agreement, than it is important and what are its main provisions?
Developed in Paris in December 2015 climate agreement for the first time in the history of United effort by all world powers to curb climate change. It was approved by 195 countries, which allowed observers to call it historical.
It replaced in effect until the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, which established quotas on greenhouse gas emissions only for a few developed countries, however, the United States withdrew from the agreement, and a number of other countries did not fulfill the agreement.
The Treaty entered into force in November 2016.
What are its key provisions?
Not allow the average temperature on earth to rise above 2C in relation to the indicators of the pre-industrial era, and to reduce it to 1.5 C.
To start in the period 2050-2100. to limit the emission of greenhouse gases resulting from industrial activity, to the level that trees, soil and the ocean can process naturally.
To revise upward every five years, the contribution of each country to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
Developed countries should allocate funds in a special climate Fund to help poorer countries combat the effects of climate change (e.g., natural disasters or rising sea levels) and the transition to renewable energy.
What is left in the agreement, and that had to be removed?
The most important thing is to keep the rise in temperature on Earth within 2C relative to pre-industrial indicators — indicators above that, according to scientists, will lead to irreversible consequences.
Unfortunately, we are already halfway to this scenario, as average temperatures increased, compared to the NINETEENTH century, almost 1C, in this connection, many countries have advocated the introduction of more stringent limit up to 1.5 seconds; among these countries were those located in the lowlands and, consequently, are at risk of flooding in the event of sea level rise.
As a result, in the final text of the agreement included a promise to seek to limit the rise of average temperatures on the planet to 1.5 C.
At the same time, for the first time in such an agreement included a long-term plan for the early reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and achieve a balance between resulting from the human activities of greenhouse gases and their absorption by forests and seas — the second half of the XXI century.
If the agreement will apply, it means reducing greenhouse gas emissions to zero net energy consumption for several decades. This is in line with the presented scientific evidence.John Languageicon research Institute for climate change in Potsdam
Some call the agreement too vague, as a number of original objectives had during negotiations to mitigate.
“The Paris agreement is only the first step in a long journey, and some parts of it make me sad and upset, although there was still some progress,” said Director of Greenpeace International Kumi Naidoo.
What about the money?
This issue in the negotiations was one of the most difficult.
Developing countries say they need financial and technological help to immediately jump on the carbon-free economy.
At the moment, they promised to provide by 2020 $ 100 billion a year — but it is smaller than expected to get many of them.
The Paris agreement commits developed countries to support the financing of this sum of 100 billion dollars annually until 2020, and pushed her to agree to 2025 for continued funding of this process.
Only certain provisions of the Paris agreement binding.
National strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have a voluntary basis; moreover, the negotiations just stumbled on the question of when it will be necessary to revise them upwards.
The agreement commits the parties to review progress in 2018, and further to conduct such assessments every five years.
According to the analysts, the Paris agreement is only the first step towards the introduction of energy saving technologies, and will have to do a lot more.
“Paris is just the starting salvo in the race towards a clean future”, — said the Executive Director of the British branch of the wildlife Fund David Nussbaum.
Helen Briggs (Helen Briggs).
Correspondent on environmental issues at the BBC (BBC Environment correspondent).