Invincible Paskevich. The story of the best generals of Nicholas I
8 (19 new style) of may 1782 was born Russian warlord, General-field Marshal Ivan Paskevich.
During the reign of Emperor Nicholas I, which began with the Decembrist revolt and ended with the defeat in the Crimean war, has not received in history the same rave evaluations as example the reign of Peter the great, or the reign of Catherine the great. The hard line pursued by Nikolai Pavlovich both in domestic and in foreign policy, ended a deep crisis in the last years of his reign.
Largely because of this General field Marshal Ivan Fedorovich Paskevich, a brilliant military leader and talented Manager, not was among the most famous commanders in Russian history.
Ivan Paskevich: the commander, never lost a battle https://t.co/TRmC7D9Bre pic.twitter.com/6rjOIGueaR
— Journal HISTORY (@rus_history) 11 Oct 2016
And it is Paskevich only in the history of the gentleman of two orders — of St. George and St. Vladimir, and one of only four full Cavaliers of the order of St. George. Paskevich, the owner of the largest in the history of the Russian Empire, one-time cash award of one million rubles in cash. He was awarded the right to military honors, specific only to the Emperor.
Page of the Emperor Paul
Ivan Paskevich was born 8 (19 new style) of may, 1782, in Poltava, in the family of the President of the Supreme Court of the land Voznesensk province, a collegiate adviser F. G. Paskevich.
Paskevich — little Russian hereditary Cossack family of the Poltava regiment, whose origin from the Cossack Pasko, officers in the army of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
Parents, giving Ivan the initial education, defined it, together with his brother Stephan in the capital’s corps of pages. This school will be a fully military in 1802, and at the time of receipt of the brothers Paskevich body engaged in the education of young men for the court service. The cadets were often at court, but with school things were tight. Education and training grandchildren in St. Petersburg have been the grandfather of Ivan and Stepan, Grigory.
To then not to return to the subject of Stephen Paskevich, say that his career also failed, but not for military but for civil service — he was Governor in Tambov, Kursk and Vladimir.
Ivan Paskevich was favored by Fortuna — shortly before the end of the corps of pages, he caught the eye of Emperor Paul I, who made it in the life pages. Upon graduation, Paskevich was appointed Lieutenant of the guard in the Preobrazhensky regiment and aide-de-camp of Paul Petrovich.
Career advancement Paskevich was broken in 1801 — after the Palace coup and the death of Paul I the Pets of the deceased Emperor was not in honor of Alexander I.
Fighter, diplomat and educator
In the spring of 1805, Paskevich was appointed under General Ivan Michelson in the army which he took part in the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812. Here Paskevich was awarded his first combat award — the order of St. Vladimir 4-th degree and a Golden sword “For courage”.
During this war, something wrong happened with the military staff in place of the 67-year-old Ivan Michelson, who died in the course of the campaign, was appointed to the 74-year-old field Marshal Alexander Prozorovsky, also died before the end of the war.
When Prozorovsky Paskevich performed the duties of messenger, having been twice in Istanbul, including deciding the question of the exchange of prisoners of war.
For this he was promoted to captain and awarded the order of the Crescent award from the Sultan.
Having dealt with diplomatic duties, Paskevich was back on the battle field he was wounded at the siege of Braila, distinguished himself in the battle of Tataritsa and was awarded the order of St. Anne 2 nd degree, participated in the storming of Bazardjik, repulsed a counterattack the Turks at the siege of Varna.
In December 1810, Paskevich was entrusted with the task of forming a new, Orlovsky regiment. Under his command was transferred to what is called “penalty box” — poorly disciplined soldiers, convicted of various violations of officers. But the commander of the regiment showed themselves from the best side — taking care of personnel, punishing only for business, Paskevich managed to gain the trust and respect, build discipline, and trained subordinates.
Ivan Paskevich: a brilliant military leader and hero in the service of gendarme https://t.co/wULhEHuQG8 pic.twitter.com/LZSFxCo6xo
— Argument (@argumentua) 28 APR 2017
Yesterday’s “penalty box” has turned into a model regiment, and Paskevich was rushed for treatment — health from hard work shaken.
“I want you to meet one of the best generals of my army”
In January 1812, Ivan Paskevich returned to the army General and gets command of the 26th division.
During world war, General Paskevich has performed brilliantly. In the battle of Borodino his division desperately defended by the troops of eugène de Beauharnais, who had a five-fold advantage in manpower.
Under the General was killed two horses, and he was not even wounded.
In the battle of Red Paskevich led the bayonet attack of three infantry regiments, overturned columns of Marshal Ney.
During the foreign campaign of the Russian army, Ivan Paskevich distinguished himself in the battles of Lapithos, for which he was promoted to Lieutenant General. For the capture of Paris, General Paskevich was awarded the order St. Alexander Nevsky.
In Paris, an event occurred which in the life of Ivan Paskevich played a crucial role.
During the review of the troops, Alexander I presented the 32-year-old General to his 18-year-old brother Nicholas: “I want you to Meet one of the best generals of my army, which I have not had time to thank him for his excellent service.”
After the war, Paskevich commanded a division stationed in Smolensk, carried out special assignments of the Emperor, accompanied in the journey through Russia and Europe the Emperor’s brother, Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich.
Paskevich was an opponent of the military reforms conducted by count Arakcheyev, believing that engrafted in the army, the drill does nothing in terms of enhancing the combat capability of the parts.
Conqueror of the Persians
Among the Decembrists were a lot of heroes of the Patriotic war of 1812, but was close to revolutionary sentiments was not. Who in December 1825 the Emperor Nicholas I, after crushing the revolt of the Decembrists, Paskevich was appointed a member of the Supreme criminal court. In the circumstances it was the maximum trust and confidence.
The coronation of Nicholas I took place in August 1826, two weeks before her Paskevich was sent to the Caucasus, where the Russo-Persian war. Was formally ordered to assist the commander of a Separate Caucasian corps Alexey Yermolov. But in fact it was the replacement of the wayward and tough commander, to which the new Emperor did not trust.
7 th army under the command of Ivan Paskevich 14 Sep 1826, defeated the 35-thousand army of crown Prince Abbas Mirza near Yelizavetpol. This victory is in many respects determined the further course of the war.
In the spring of 1827 the Russian army went on the offensive, occupied Nakhichevan, Erivan and Tebra, and began to threaten Tehran. The Persians began the peace negotiations, though, and desperately tried to tighten them up. Paskevich himself participated in the negotiations, and when they slip, conducted small-scale military operations, after which the Persians made concessions.
10 February 1828 peace was signed in the village of Turkmanchai, in which Persia ceded Russia Erivan and Nakhichevan khanates, as well as pledged to pay 20 million silver rubles indemnity.
This victory was the first triumph of the era of Nicholas I, the Emperor did not skimp on awards. The highest decree the General-adjutant, General of infantry Ivan Fedorovich Paskevich was built with the descending of his offspring, the title of count of the Russian Empire dignity, with the name of Graf Paskevich of Erivan, and received an indemnity of a million paper rubles.
Erzurum pleads for mercy
In 1828 broke out the next Russian-Turkish war. Paskevich was ordered to cover the boundary in the Caucasus. The General, however, decided that in the circumstances the best defense is a good offense.
In June, 1828 Paskevich’s troops marched to the fortress of Kars, besieged it and forced to surrender. On 23 July, the Russian army stormed the fortress of Akhalkalaki. In August of 1828 the walls of the fortress of Akhaltsikh 9000 Russian soldiers under the command of General Ivan Paskevich defeated the 30-strong Turkish army under Kios-Mahomet-Pasha. After this battle, the fortress surrendered.
Repulsed in the spring of 1829 the attempts of the Turks to recover the lost fortress, in June, Paskevich led the army under the walls of erzeroum. Defeating the Ottomans in several skirmishes, Russian General demanded the surrender of the city, and Erzurum surrendered to the mercy of the victors.
For the capture of Erzerum Ivan Paskevich was awarded the order of St. George of the 1st degree.
“Warsaw is at the feet of Your Imperial Majesty”
After the Russo-Turkish war, Paskevich, who became General-field Marshal, was entrusted with the military administration of the Caucasus. However, in this role, the General spent a short time in 1831 he was sent to suppress the uprising in Poland.
Experienced Paskevich has acted quickly and decisively — beating strong army of poles under the command of Berry, he was pushed back to Warsaw and asked them to surrender. After the negative response, commenced the assault.
26 Aug 1831, Paskevich sent a message to Emperor: “Warsaw is at the feet of Your Imperial Majesty.”
With a report in the St. Petersburg went, the staff-captain Alexander Suvorov, a grandson of the great commander, in his time, too, defeated the Polish insurgents.
In September 1831 the chief of the army, General field Marshal, count Ivan Fedorovich Paskevich, count of Erivan, was erected, with the downside of his offspring, the Prince of the Russian Empire dignity, with the title of serene Highness and the name Warsaw.
Now the name of the commander officially sounded like Ivan Warsaw, Graf Paskevich of Erivan.
Nicholas I decided that the best candidate for the role of Governor in Poland than Paskevich, can not be. Ivan Paskevich was able to do to strengthen Russian power in Poland. Hated it the Polish nationalists had planned several times the assassination of the Governor, but these ideas have failed.
Field Marshal of the three countries
The outbreak of 1848 revolution in Hungary forced the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph to ask for military help from Russia. 5 Jun 1849 an expeditionary force of Ivan Paskevich entered the territory of Hungary, with the order of Nicholas I “do not spare channels”.
Paskevich coped with the task as always. On 1 August, the rebels capitulated. In September, 1849 field Marshal wrote in a report about the campaign: “Hungary at the feet of Your Imperial Majesty.” As a reward for the pacification of Hungary Nicholas I ordered to provide was the same military honors which are rendered only to the person of His Imperial Majesty.
5 Oct 1850 in Warsaw was held a solemn parade in honor of the 50-year service anniversary of Ivan Paskevich. Present at the ceremony, Emperor Nicholas I gave the celebrant a new sample field Marshal’s baton with the inscription “For twenty-four led by the victorious Russian armies in Persia, Turkey, Poland and Hungary”, and the king of Prussia and the Emperor of Austria has also elevated him to field Marshal his troops.
The old commander did not survive the fall of Sevastopol
In 1853, at the beginning of the Crimean war, Paskevich was appointed commander of the southern and Western armies. But the commander was already 72 years old, his health was poor, and in may 1854 under Silistria Paskevich was severely wounded core. The field Marshal was forced to hand over command and go to treatment.
He returned to the duties of Viceroy in Poland, but a concussion led to the exacerbation of chronic diseases. And then there’s the unfortunate course of the Crimean war added to the experience elderly Paskevich.
The Palace of Paskevich in Gomel
In February 1855 died Nicholas I, and for fear it was another strong shock. The last blow was the leaving of Russian troops in Sevastopol in early September, 1855, after the news about which the commander took to his bed and never got up.
Ivan Fedorovich Paskevich died 20 January 1856. Initially, the ashes of the General were buried in Poland, but in 1889 the remains of Ivan Paskevich and his wife were reburied in the family tomb of the princes of the region, built in Gomel.