The exam with the experience: the act exam marks 10 years
According to experts, if the original idea of introduction of Unified state examination has met much resistance, over the past five years, the credibility has increased.
MOSCOW, February 9. /Offset. TASS Kristina Sulima, Ekaterina Efimova/. Unified state exam (use), abbreviation which has long been familiar to our ear, has become the main form of graduation exams in schools and entrance to universities exactly 10 years ago — on this day in 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed the Federal law on the introduction of the exam in Russia.
The document marked the beginning of a real revolution in the education system, because a serious impact not only on the learning process in schools, but the admission to higher education, including abolishing privileges for medallists.
Do use “father”?
“The idea was born of the exam in our discussion with Vladimir Filippov (the current rector of the Russian University of friendship of peoples, Chairman of the Higher attestation Commission, ex-Minister of education (1998-2004) — approx. TASS) and Yaroslav Kuz’minov (rector, national research UNIVERSITY “Higher school of Economics”)”, — TASS said the scientific head of the Center for monitoring educational quality, education Institute, higher school of Economics, former Deputy head of the Ministry of education (1996-2004), former head of the Rosobrnadzor (2004-2008) Victor Bolotov.
The idea belongs to our entire educational community. In the obvious form it was first put forward at the Congress of education workers in the Kremlin in early January 2000 modulation Filippovichi PFUR
According to the rector of PFUR, the idea of the exam came from the audience of five thousand people. “They voiced it, and the implementers became I, as Minister, my first Deputy, Viktor Bolotov, Yaroslav Kuzminov, and, of course, Andrey Fursenko (Russian presidential aide, Minister of education and science in the years 2004-2012 — approx. TASS), which already had been signed the Federal law on the exam”, — said in an interview with TASS Filippov.
What is the reason for the state exam
“First, we needed an objective mechanism to evaluate the performance of graduates of the school, because the exam in high school, usually the same teacher who taught, and exhibited the rating on the exams, that is actually himself, so the two were extremely rare,” shared Philip.
Second, was the problem with the universities, which imposes different requirements for the applicants for the same specialty, and sometimes surpassed, the level of the school curriculum, said the rector.
Another problem was the fact that for the inhabitants of Siberia and the Far East, for example, because of distance and money, so it was difficult to just pick up and come to another city to apply to the University. Especially considering the fact that each of them had their own paid training courses, graduates which has always been much easier to do.Vladimir Filippovich PFUR
If in Soviet times in Moscow universities received approximately 65% of non-resident, or two-thirds of the total number of students, and only one third of Muscovites, by the time the start of testing of the exam in 2001, it was the opposite — did two-thirds of the graduates of Moscow and Moscow region and only one third of non-resident, cites the former Minister.
“Like MSU, Baumanka, Moscow state Institute was created and built for Muscovites,” — said Filippov. With the introduction of the exam, according to him, the situation has changed significantly, and the share of non-resident graduates entering higher education institutions today again approached the Soviet proportion — approximately 60% foreign and 40% of Muscovites. “This speaks to the accessibility of higher education today,” said the rector.
Why is the exam in Russia received a cold reception
The experiment exam lasted for seven years (started in 2001 and is annually attended by approximately 1 million pupils) — exactly as did the process of testing, when the regions picked items for delivery, and the universities chose the items they will be counted as exams.
“Preparing for the exam and its introduction was met with great resistance in the country,” recalls Philip. To understand why, in his opinion, need to look at the categories themselves “dissenters.”
“I want to stress that there were many progressive people who understood the problems and had initially called for the introduction of the exam. On the other hand, there was a large proportion of those who were against it”, — said the rector of PFUR.
He said that we are talking about teachers who had previously grades, and now was forced “to tremble in anticipation, as their students will appreciate the outsiders”; they were opponents of the unified state examinations and principals which were early influenced on who to give the medal, whereas with the arrival of the exam, she stopped to play a role in admission.
“Of course, after the exam, the opportunity to compare, and why the same exam at the same school children pass better, another worse. Previously, it was impossible to make, but now there is a mechanism to evaluate the quality of schools that Scarecrow of Directors, and therefore they were against this system”, — said Filippov.
Opponents of the exam were University professors, because they used to do tutoring and to prepare children specifically in your University. So, teacher MGIMO coached for the exam in mathematics of the Moscow state University and Bauman Professor in mathematics at University. With the introduction of the exam they lost earning potential, because requirements in the universities were equalized, differs only the necessary number of points.
In turn, the rectors were against it, because with his entrance exams to decide who to take, who is not.Vladimir Filippovich PFUR
The formation mechanism of the exam
Its modern form, the exam has already taken under Andrei Fursenko, who succeeded Vladimir Filippov at the head of the Ministry of education in 2004.
Of course, the parents and the students and teachers of schools and universities were concerned that the whole system, to which all in some degree or other adapted, can fall apart, become something else, that all changes, as we have assumed will be worse.Andrew Fursenko-Minister of education and science of the Russian Federation
According to him, one of the major victories is that the law on the exam failed to get a visa to the rector of MSU named after M. V. Lomonosov Viktor Sadovnichy, so the Minister was able to get tangible support from the rector’s community.
“And as a result, the law went, and went with the visa Sadovnichy, and any subsequent changes which were made, always consistent with University rectors”, — said Fursenko.
He added that the difficulties associated with the transition to the exam, there is all the time. “We discussed… how much should be compulsory subjects to pass the exam on the final certification of students, entrance examinations for admission to universities, how to account for results of winners and prize-winners of various Olympiads. The result was supported by the accepted model of the exam,” said the former Minister.
He recalled that mandatory for all the exam was from 2009. “And in this transition period almost every month the question was raised that this law be abolished. Has introduced bills to abolish, from “Fair Russia” from the Communist party. And then I uncharacteristically categorically said: “the Law will not be cancelled, stop to pull the children and their parents, they should understand that they will pass the exam, they are preparing for it, and nothing wrong with that,” says Fursenko.
The dispute about the tests
Now increasingly heard opinion that the exam in its original form was almost nothing left. So from the test options for all subjects except foreign language, disappeared the test part.
In the Russian language, on the contrary, graduates enter the oral part, to demonstrate proficiency in speech and not just knowledge on paper.
“I always thought that the original test system is not an integral part of the exam. Important fundamental aspects: first, the system separated those who were taught, from those who assess knowledge and second it one for all and gives equal chances to all children, regardless of where they live and in what school. It is also important that there is competition among universities for students and not only students at the University,” — said Fursenko.
According to Bolotov, the rejection test is not the right solution. “Now you can not hide that questions with choice of answer was to weak graduates, so they can get your Ged and do not go outside without certificates. But what is happening now, frankly speaking: clean choice question answer and all the time lower the bar of performance of tasks — how many tasks you need to perform to get the certificate”, — said Bolotov.
On the positive side, he noted the increased credibility of the exam in the population of Russia over the last five years and attributed this to the work of the service.
“Any system can’t live without any changes, especially such, which is the exam,” said TASS Filippov. He confirmed that the original part “A” (test) the examination of the options gave the opportunity to test the minimum level of knowledge and earn the “Troika” those who do not know the subject.
Now that the school understands the level of the exam, and how to be prepared for it, in almost all disciplines of test part has disappeared. Although this does not mean that it’s right in many Western countries, the test part is, this is normal.Vladimir Filippovich PFUR
He stressed that the decision on the introduction of the exam was taken carefully and deliberately, taking into account the views of the public and professional communities.
“Across our country for many centuries we have never had such a long experiment to direct reform. And, perhaps, no wonder that 10 years after the release of the document, you write this stuff, so it has stood the test of time”, — concluded the rector of PFUR.