“I did everything to fulfill the duty.” Victory and defeat of Marshal Zhukov
December 1, 1896 was born the Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov.
“Hello, uncle Misha”
XX century in Russian history was contradictory, full of grandiose disasters and the greatest of victories, examples of high humanism and brutality.
Chief commander of the country in this century became a person as controversial as the history of the country.
The identity and actions of Georgy Zhukov will cause fierce debate for many decades, and is unlikely ever to be reduced to a common denominator.Video120 years ago, was born Georgy Zhukov
The future Marshal of the Victory was born on 1 December (new style) 1896 in the village Strelkovka Maloyaroslavetskiy district, Kaluga province into a peasant family of Konstantin artemyevitch Zhukov.
About a great career for the son of parents never dreamed of. When George graduated three classes of parochial school, my mother began to collect it in the road: to Moscow, to the uncle Michael Pilipino, the furrier, in whose Studio the boy had to master the profession of furrier.
“When you get up, bow and say: “Hello, Michael A.”, — advised the mother.
— No, I say, “Hello, Misha!”, stubbornly replied 12-year-old boy.
Submissive obedience has never been typical of Zhukov. During the war he will be one of the few who dares to openly argue with the Supreme Commander.
My point of view, regardless of how it is correct, the beetles have always defended fiercely.
From furriers — red commanders
The training took place successfully. In 1912 Georgy Zhukov — one of the most capable and promising students, which helps the owner to sell in the shop during the Nizhny Novgorod fair. Two years later, in 1914, Zhukov was already a young master furrier cases, building plans and looked after a bride.
Everything changed the First world war. In the summer of 1915 the Skinner Zhukov was conscripted into the army. It is unlikely that if it came to mind that his civilian profession, he said goodbye forever.
After the cavalry courses in 1916, Sergeant Zhukov was sent to the southwestern front at the disposal of the commander of the 10th Novgorod Dragoon regiment. Taking part in hostilities, “for the capture of a German officer” was awarded the George cross 4th degree. In October I received a serious concussion and due to the partial loss of hearing, sent to the reserve regiment of cavalry.
Wounded in battle was awarded the second of the George cross, this time to 3 degrees. After the disbandment of the squadron in December 1917 he returned to Moscow, then to the village to parents, where for a long time suffered from typhoid.
In August of 1918, Zhukov joined the Red Army, fought in the Civil war, after the Ryazan cavalry courses became first a platoon commander and then a squadron commander.
In 1922 Krask Georgy Zhukov was awarded the order of the red banner for participation in the suppression of the Antonov uprising.
The first star of the Hero
His career in the interwar period developed in parallel with the career of another famous great Patriotic war Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky. In 1930, Rokossovsky commanded 7 Samara captivities, commander of the brigade in which was the bugs.
Beetles will pass it during the “great terror”, when Rokossovsky will be on the verge of death.
Zhukov repression will be spared, and he later will help the former chief to return to duty.
In the Great Patriotic war they will fight side by side, making common cause, but continuing to argue and compete among themselves.
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In 1939, Georgy Zhukov will win his first significant victory, defeating the Japanese at Khalkin-Gol and forcing them to abandon plans for a large-scale attack on the USSR. During this operation, the corps commander Zhukov was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and the order of the red banner of the MPR.
Konstantin Rokossovsky, giving the characteristics of his subordinate in the early 1930s, indicate that staff work the bugs not suitable, since “hates her”.
Ironically, in early 1941, the chief of the General staff of the red army will be Georgy Zhukov.
This decision is largely influenced by the brilliant actions of Zhukov during the operational-strategic games on the cards. Playing for the imaginary enemy, he will clearly show the weaknesses of the Soviet troops in the Western direction, using largely the same exercises, which in June of 1941, will use the Germans. Alas, foresight Zhukov at the beginning of the real war didn’t really help.
“Let’s face it, no Commissar, no I did not have the necessary experience in preparing the armed forces for such a war, which unfolded in 1941,” — he wrote later Zhukov in the memories.
“The crisis Manager” the great Patriotic war
The post of chief of the General staff of the beetles will leave at the end of July 1941, passing it experienced Boris Shaposhnikov. Many believe that this resignation will become evidence of the unsuitability of the commander for such work, notice Rokossovsky.
It will happen, however, after one of the toughest conversations between Zhukov and Stalin, where everyone will have their own truth. The bugs will require the abandonment of Kiev and the withdrawal, warning of the dangers of a military disaster.
Stalin, who considered the question from the standpoint of policy, believed that the loss of Kiev will cause too much political damage. The altercation ended leaving Zhukov from his post, but he was right: Kiev fell, and the rout of the Soviet forces in the area has become one of the biggest failures of the red Army during the war.
The paradox is that this resignation Zhukov may have been the decisive factor in the failure of the German blitzkrieg.
Zhukov began to perform the duties of a military “crisis Manager”, who was sent to save the position where it seemed hopeless.
In early September, Zhukov will organize and conduct Leninskuy offensive, freeing Yelnya and cut off the so-called “elninskaya ledge”.
Three days after the end of the operation of yelnia beetles take Leningrad front, where the situation has become catastrophic, and the city was on the verge of surrender. Three weeks by active action and hard decisions beetles stabilize the front and prevent the fall of Leningrad.
October 8, 1941 it will withdraw under Moscow, where from the broken and fragmented parts of the Reserve and Western fronts, he will build defenses to keep the capital.
In the midst of the defensive battles on the outskirts of Moscow Zhukov will call Stalin:
“— Are you sure we can hold Moscow? I’m asking you about the pain in the shower. To be honest, as a Communist.
— Moscow will certainly hold — said Zhukov. Answer by taking on an incredibly difficult undertaking.
He will give strict orders for cowardice and retreat without orders face execution on the spot. Many of his stiffness will seem unjustified. But Moscow held….
The right to send to death
When the counter-offensive near Moscow already successfully developed, Zhukov once lay down to rest and slept for more than a day.
To dobuita: heavy loads and incredible nervous tension made themselves felt.
Georgy Zhukov during the war, participated in the development of the largest operations of the Soviet troops, both successful and unsuccessful. Him reproach will often put the disregard for soldiers ‘ lives, attributing phrase, which he never said.
“My emotion is clear — there are people dying, and you’re powerless to help them!
Perhaps you remember that they are still people?
— No, I don’t have rights, otherwise you’ll start to think that they have fathers, mothers, children that are waiting for them at home… then it will be difficult for death to send them… and have….
This is a dispute between a member of the military Council Isaev and the commander of the army General by Bessonov from the novel “Hot snow” of the writer Yuri Bondarev. Bondarev, who himself was a war, put into the mouth of his hero words that largely explain the meaning and actions of Georgy Zhukov.
Zhukov was cruel and demanding and sends people to death, but not for narcissism, but for the sake of achieving the desired result.
Speaking of beetles, often draw Parallels with one of the most revered American generals won the Civil war, a leader of the Northmen and US President Ulysses Grant. “I never think of their dead” — a phrase attributed to Grant, who never considered the losses to achieve the goal.
Marshal Of The Victory
The ruthlessness of Zhukov to his subordinates exaggerated: if so, it would not be in the winning country of the people’s veneration of Marshal. However, the military commander who knew how to take on the burden of responsibility, he was ready to sacrifice, if it is really needed to win.
In 1945 Georgy Zhukov as commander of the First Byelorussian front, will be assigned the main role in the operation to capture Berlin. Criticism of the Marshall decades later will talk about unimaginable victims of the red Army, inventing non-existent words of Zhukov and the Western military leaders, allegedly sharply criticized him for his methods of conducting.
However, the facts tell a different story: during the Second world war, there were no other examples of taking such a well-fortified city in such a short time. Losses for such an operation was very moderate. The Berlin operation was the pearl of Soviet military thought.
May 8, 1945 at 22:43 (9 may at 0:43 Moscow time) in Karlshorst Zhukov took over from field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel unconditional surrender of the troops of Nazi Germany.
June 24, 1945 Marshal Zhukov took the Parade of the Soviet Victory over Germany in the great Patriotic war, which took place in Moscow on red square. The parade is an eternal companion and opponent Konstantin Rokossovsky.
“Court” intrigue worse enemy armies
In civilian life beetles, which gained huge influence and popularity, proved to be too uncomfortable. Under Stalin he went to command the Odessa and then the Urals military districts, returning to the position of first Deputy Minister of defense of the USSR after the death of the leader.
In the battle for “Stalin’s legacy” Nikita Khrushchev is using Zhukov as the “Queen”, who on 26 June 1953 put a “Mat” Lavrenti Beria. The all-powerful head of the interior Ministry could confuse anyone, but not Zhukov.
In 1955 Zhukov will take the post of Minister of defense, and in this position will give the command for the operation “Whirlwind” to suppress anti-government uprising in Hungary.
In 1957 under Khrushchev seriously staggered the chair, and only the intervention of Zhukov will save the President from resignation.
But Nikita that salvation will freak out even more, and at the end of the same year in the “Truth” will have an article in which Zhukov will blame the fact that he “was politically untenable figure, prone to adventurism in the understanding of the most important tasks of Soviet foreign policy and the leadership of the Ministry of defense.”
In February 1958, the people’s Marshal of the country will be retired and information blockade. Four times Hero of the Soviet Union, holder of two orders “Victory” seemed to have disappeared. Konstantin Rokossovsky will support the line of Khrushchev in relation to Zhukov, but soon he will fall into disgrace, when you refuse to write in his order of anti-Stalinist article.
“Death leaves a fiery beetles”
Only in 1965, 20-th anniversary of the Victory Zhukov again invited to the official event at the Kremlin, where it will meet a long standing ovation.
To the death beetles will be in a very strange status. It seems that the new Soviet leadership headed by Leonid Brezhnev were afraid of him.
Interview with the Marshal took rarely, articles were carefully edited, and a memoir entitled “Memories and reflections”, which was first released in 1969.
In November 1973, his wife died the Marshal, and it seriously crippled his own health. Followed by a heart attack, after which he has not recovered. Georgy Zhukov died 18 June 1974.
The future Nobel laureate Joseph Brodsky, by then already two years in exile in the United States, wrote a poem “On the death of Zhukov”, which now is no less controversial than the identity of the Marshal.
Sam George K., the final resting place of which was the wall of the Moscow Kremlin, summing up life in his memoirs wrote: “For me the main thing was to serve his country, his people. And with a clear conscience can say: I did everything to fulfill this duty… I’ve lived my life with the knowledge that benefit the people, and this is important for any life.”